Fall is a major cause of disability and death in the elderly. More than a third of elderly people living in the community fall annually.
Risk factors :
Environmental– loose carpets and rugs, bad/slippery flooring, steep stairs, poor lighting, poor fitting foot wears and clothes, lack of safety equipments e.g. grab rails.
Drugs-disturb mental and physical functions leading to fall.
Medical Conditions – arthritis, osteoporosis, visual impairment, dizziness, dementia, stroke and parkinsonism.
Nutritional Factors – poor diet, especially lacking in calcium and vitamin D.
Lack of exercise
- Injuries which may result in serious head injuries and fractures.
- Psychological – fear, loss of confidence, anxiety, depression, social isolation and functional limitation.
- Disability with subsequent dependency.
- Immobility may lead to pressure sores, muscle damage and lung infection.
- Diagnosis and treatment of medical problems
- Physiotherapy and occupational therapy assessment
- Healthy lifestyle
- Elderly friendly environment – good lighting and pavements
- Targeting risk factors as above
- Foot care and appropriate footwear
- Multidisciplinary approach to improve stability during standing, transferring (moving) and walking through.
- To regain independence and confidence..
- Modify the home environment and remove hazards.
- Teach strategies to cope with further falls.
|Last Review||:||26 April 2012|
|Writer||:||Dr. Joseph Ngeh|
|:||Dr. Mohd Daud Che Yusof|
|:||Dr. R. Sukumar a/l Rajaretnam|
|Reviewed||:||Dr. Mohd Daud Che Yusof|