The guidelines below can help protect you from exercise related injuries and also make being active more enjoyable.
- Consult a doctor before starting on a vigorous exercise programme.
- Begin slowly and gradually build up over several weeks as you get fitter:
- Begin by alternating 2-3 minutes of exercise with 2-3 minutes of rest over 15 minutes.
- Activity should be increased 2-3 minutes every week until total of 30 minutes is reached.
- Always warm-up to prevent aches and pains later.
- Always cool down by walking or doing stretches to avoid dizziness or feeling sick.
- Slow down if you are too breathless to talk during exercise. (More info go to exercise capacity)
- Stop immediately if you experience:
- Dress in light, loose clothing and use comfortable, well-cushioned shoes.
- Best time for exercise:
- Early morning (before 9.30 a.m. in Malaysia)
- Evening (after 6 p.m.)
- Environment for exercise:
- Flat surface.
- Controlled temperature and humidity.
- Shaded area.
- Well lit.
- Make sure you drink fluids before, during and after exercise to replace sweat loss.
- Always do deep breathing exercise in between exercises.
- If you are diabetic:
- Carry some sweets in case of dizziness due to hypoglycemia which might happen.
- Use comfortable, padded shoes and socks to protect your foot from injury.
- Do not exercise with empty stomach or full stomach.
- If you are hypertensive:
- Stop exercise if you have dizziness, chest pain and breathlessness.
- If you are obese:
- Do not do exercise too aggressively and minimize high impact movements to avoid injury to your muscles and joints
- Talk Test: Slow down if you are too breathless to talk during exercise.
- Calculating Target Heart Rate (THR):
220 – 70 = 150
150 x 0.60 = 90
150 x 0.90 = 135
- You should try to keep the heart rate between 90 and 135 beats per minute.
- Consult your doctor if:
- Your Resting Heart Rate is near or above your Target Heart Rate.
- You are on any medication which can slow down your Heart Rate.
- To feel for your heart rate, palpate the pulse at level of the wrist at the base of the thumb.
- To calculate your Heart Rate, palpate and count the pulse for 60 seconds (1 minute).
For more information on Exercise Workload
A metabolic equivalent (METS) is defined as multiples of resting metabolic rate . Exercises performed at 2 METS requires double the resting metabolism, 3 METS requires triple the resting metabolism and so forth, The resting metabolic rate is measured as amount of oxygen consumed in a minute per kilogram of body mass, a measurement of energy used per kg body weight per minute in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity. One MET is the energy expenditure when a person is at rest. This is equivalent to 3.5 kilocalories /kg/hour.
1 MET = resting VO2 (volume of oxygen used) which is approximately 3.5ml (oxygen) per kilogram (body weight) per minute. Resting VO2 (One MET) = 3.5 ml x kg x minutes.
For the purpose of calculating your energy expenditure during physical activity, the formula is:
Energy Expenditure (cals per minute )
|= 0.0175 cals/kg/min. x MET x body weight (kg)|
|= calories per minute|
|= cals/min x 60 = calories expended|
Below are examples of energy expenditure for various body weights and activities.
Estimated exercise energy (METs)/calorie (Kilocalorie/hour) expenditure:
|Last Review||:||26 April 2012|
|:||Normah bt. Nordin|
|:||Thillainathan a/l Krishnan|
|Reviewed||:||Dr. Mohmad bin Salleh|