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Dietary for Hypercholesterolemia

Introduction

Goals of dietary management:

  • To maintain cholesterol level in normal range.
  • To reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

There are 3 methods to reduce your cholesterol level:

  • Restrict high cholesterol food.
  • Reduce fat intake.
  • Increase your fiber intake.
  1. Restrict high cholesterol food
    • Dietary cholesterol when taken in excess can increase the LDL (‘bad’) cholesterol levels. (refer table).
    • The consumption of no more than 2 egg yolks per week is allowed.
    • Organ meats and offal are not encouraged.
    • Prawn, squid, crabs and shellfish (mussels, clams, cockles) can be included in your diet based on the frequency and amount of intake.
    • In doubt, consult your dietician.
  2. Reduce fat intake
    • Saturated fats raise blood cholesterol level.
    • Coconut milk is one of the major contributors to saturated fat intake.
    • For home cooking: coconut milk if taken should be limited to 2 tablespoons twice a week in any dish.
    • When eating out: no coconut milk, based gravy is allowed.
    • Refer to Malaysian Dietary Guidelines.
  3. Increase your dietary fibre intake
    • Dietary fibre can lower your blood cholesterol level.
    • Source of fibre can be mainly found in fruits, vegetables, oatmeal, wholegrain.

Type of Fat

There are two categories of fat found in foods.

Saturated fat

  • Solidifies and harden under cold temperature.
  • Mainly found in animal products and in some vegetable fat eg coconut milk (santan).
  • Excessive intake associates with raised blood cholesterol and increases risk of heart disease.

Unsaturated fat

  • Soft or even in liquid form when stored in the refrigerator.
  • Mainly from plant origin.

There are two types:

  • Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) eg : olive and palm oil.
  • Polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) eg : sunflower , corn oil and soft margarine.

Other names of fat – trans fatty acid, shortening, suet, marbling, cream, tallow, lard.

Dripping, hydrogenated fat, cis-fatty acid.

Table of Cholesterol Content Of Food

Cholesterol content of some common food items
Food items
(100 gm edible portions)
Chol.
(mg)
Food items
(100 gm edible portions)
Chol.
(mg)
Organ of Glandular Meats
Milk and milk products
Brain – pig
800
Butter
120
Kidney – lamb
375
Cream – heavy
133
Liver – lamb
300
Cream – light
113
Liver – pig
180
Whipped topping
85
Heart
150
Sour cream
66
Meat and poultry
Cheese
90
Turkey – dark meat
101
Cottage cheese – cream
19
Turkey – light meat
77
Cottage cheese – uncream
7
Chicken
85
Cream cheese
111
Lamb
70
Cheese spread
64
Pork – fat
63
Evaporated unsweetened milk
31
Pork – lean
50
Full cream powdered milk
105
Mutton
55
Skim Milk
22
Beef
45
Fat
Fish and shellfish
Lard
95
Anchovy with head
383
Mayonaise
70
Anchovy minus head
58
Miscellaneous
Prawns – dried
353
Liver rendang
215
Prawns – fresh
130
Fried mee Indian style
160
Cuttlefish
120
Tosei with egg
85
Crab meat
100
Sambal udang
79
Oyster
50
Fried kuetiau with cockles
64
Cockles
45
Lap Cheong
56
Fish roe (telur ikan)
300
Satay
55
Sardines – canned in oil
140
Fried rice
48
Mackerel
35
Mutton curry
47
Threadfin
4
Dumpling – tai paw
56
Spanish mackerel
3
Dumpling – char siew
13
Eggs
Chicken rice
14
Hen egg – yolk only
1480
Nasi beriani
11
Hen egg – white only
0
Char siew rice
11
Duck – whole egg
850
Curry laksa
7
Quail
415

 

Last reviewed : 19 April 2012
Writer : Norizan Mashttah bt. Mardan
Mahnon Suria bt. Mokhy
Siti Farrah Zaidah bt. Mohd Yazid
Junidah bt. Raib