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Communicable Disease ( +23 )

Introduction JE occurs in a number of countries in Asia and occasionally in Northern Queensland Australia, and East Rusia. The overall incidence of JE reported among people from nonendemic countries traveling to Asia is 1 case per 1 million travelers. However, expatriates and travelers staying for prolonged periods in rural ...
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Introduction Avian Influenza is a disease caused by type A flu virus (Avian Influenza). This flu virus comes from groups Orthomyxoviridae virus and common among birds. Previously, the virus is not found in animals or humans until it has be found in China in May 2013. The disease is highly ...
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Encephalitis is defined by the presence of an inflammatory process of the brain tissue in association with clinical evidence of neurologic dysfunction.1 Meningoencephalitis is an inflammatory process involving both the brain tissue and meninges2 (Figure 1) Figure 1 The estimated annual incidence of encephalitis in the UK is 4/100,000. Infection ...
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Introduction In late March and early April 2009, the outbreak of the novel Influenza A H1N1 virus infection was first detected in Mexico. This virus subsequently caused the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic. A pandemic is said to occur if a new virus emerges and spreads around the world. In Malaysia ...
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What is avian influenza? Avian influenza or "bird flu" is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and less commonly, pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Which countries have been affected ...
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What is pandemic flu (influenza)? A flu pandemic occurs when a new subtype of flu virus emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. The present concern is that the current avian flu will change into a form that is highly infectious for humans and spreads easily from person to ...
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Introduction What is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome? Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of Pneumonia, resulting in acute respiratory distress and sometimes death. SARS is caused by a new member of the coronavirus family (the same family that can cause the common cold). SARS is spread by ...
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Introduction Leptospirosis is a rare, severe, and contagious bacterial infection caused by several species of the genus Leptospira, a spiral-shaped microorganism (spirochete). Alternative names Weil disease; Icterohemorrhagic fever; Swineherds disease; Rice-field fever; Cane-cutter fever; Swamp fever; Mud fever; Hemorrhagic jaundice; Stuttgart disease; Canicola fever Leptospirosis is caused by exposure to ...
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Introduction What is Malaria? Malaria is a disease caused by plasmodium parasite which is transmitted through the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Once the parasites (called sporozoites) enter the human body, they travel through the bloodstream to the liver. In the liver they mature and then re-enter the bloodstream and ...
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Introduction Anthrax is a disease caused by a spore forming bacterium called bacillus anthracis. It affects mainly animals but can cause serious illness in humans if one is exposed to these spores. It can affect the skin, the intestines or the lungs. Anthrax has been developed into a modern biological ...
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Introduction Leprosy is a slowly progressing bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin, nerves in the arm and leg, and other organs such as nose and eyes. Leprosy is also known as Hansen's disease. The mode of spread is uncertain but it is thought to be the ...
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What is Meningococcal Disease Meningococcal meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord and may lead to meningococcal septicaemia (blood poisoning by the meningococcus bacteria). Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcal disease is transmitted by direct contact via droplets of respiratory secretions ...
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Introduction Hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) is an infection of young children (under the age 10 years old) in which characteristic fluid-filled blisters appear on the hands, feet, and inside the mouth. The throat and tonsils develop small ulcers while the hands, feet, and diaper area develop a rash with characteristic vesicles (very ...
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Introduction What is Chlamydia? Chlamydia is a bacterial infection. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Malaysia. If not treated, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), as well as sterility and pregnancy problems. Chlamydia is highly contagious and can be spread by sexual contact ...
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Introduction Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Signs and Symptoms The incubation period of chikungunya fever is usually 3-7 days. The symptoms are very similar to that of dengue, but unlike dengue, hemorrhagic or shock syndrome does not take place ...
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Introduction Genital herpes is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). It take 2 forms: blister in the mouth or face (oral herpes or HSV type 1) appearing in the genital area (genital herpes or HSV type 2) This virus enters your body through small ...
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Introduction What is TB? TB is a bacterial infection caused by tubercle bacilli. TB is an airborne disease which usually attacks the lungs. It can also affect other parts of the body such as brain, bones, lymph nodes, kidneys and skin. The bacteria are spread through the air in tiny ...
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Introduction What is HIV and AIDS? HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus is the virus that causes AIDS. The HIV infection will gradually destroy the body's immune system, making it vulnerable to a whole range of infections and cancers. AIDS stands for 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome". It is a collection of sysmptoms, ...
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Introduction Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease. Recognised in two different forms i.e. urban and jungle. Urban Yellow Fever occurs in cities and is spread from mosquito to human. In the jungle form, Yellow Fever is spread from mosquitoes to monkeys and also to humans (zoonosis). Although reported cases ...
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Introduction Dengue is one of the most important arthropod-borne viral diseases in terms of human morbidity and mortality. Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions around the world predominantly in urban and semi urban areas. Dengue occurs from bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. Aedes mosquito is most frequently found ...
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Intoduction What is Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's)? Sexually transmitted infections (STI's) are passed on through intimate sexual contact. STI's include chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhoea. They can be passed on during vaginal, anal and oral sexual intercourse, as well as through genital contact with an infected partner. In Malaysia, STI's have ...
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Tuberculosis (TB)

Introduction What is TB? TB is a bacterial infection caused by tubercle bacilli. TB is an airborne disease which usually ...
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HIV

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