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Communicable Disease

Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

Introduction JE occurs in a number of countries in Asia and occasionally in Northern Queensland Australia, and East Rusia. The overall incidence of JE reported among people from nonendemic countries traveling to Asia is 1 case per 1 million travelers. However, expatriates and travelers staying for prolonged periods in rural …

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H7N9

Introduction Avian Influenza is a disease caused by type A flu virus (Avian Influenza). This flu virus comes from groups Orthomyxoviridae virus and common among birds. Previously, the virus is not found in animals or humans until it has be found in China in May 2013. The disease is highly …

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Meningoencephalitis

Encephalitis is defined by the presence of an inflammatory process of the brain tissue in association with clinical evidence of neurologic dysfunction.1 Meningoencephalitis is an inflammatory process involving both the brain tissue and meninges2 (Figure 1)   Figure 1 The estimated annual incidence of encephalitis in the UK is 4/100,000. …

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Needle Syringe Exchange Program (NSEP)

What is NSEP programme NSEP is an acronym for Needle Syringe Exchange Programme. It is a part of harm reduction programme. It is a programme where used needles and syringes are exchanged with sterile ones among intravenous drug users Who is the target group Clients who are involved with intravenous …

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HIV Theraphy

Current HIV therapy available in selected government health clinics and most hospitals in Malaysia is highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART therapy consists of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to suppress the HIV virus and to stop the disease progression. Not all patients will require the treatment in the …

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H1N1

Introduction In late March and early April 2009, the outbreak of the novel Influenza A H1N1 virus infection was first detected in Mexico. This virus subsequently caused the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic. A pandemic is said to occur if a new virus emerges and spreads around the world. In Malaysia …

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Avian Influenza – D

What is avian influenza? Avian influenza or “bird flu” is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and less commonly, pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Which countries have been affected …

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Pandemic Influenza

What is pandemic flu (influenza)? A flu pandemic occurs when a new subtype of flu virus emerges that has not previously circulated in humans. The present concern is that the current avian flu will change into a form that is highly infectious for humans and spreads easily from person to …

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