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Vaccines

BCG (TB) Vaccine

What is BCG? The name stands for Bacillus Calmette Gurrain. The vaccine contains a strain/type of mycobacterium bovis which is a bacterium (germ) that causes tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The bacteria are altered so that it does not cause a TB infection, but stimulate your immune system to make your …

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MMR (Mumps, Measles & Rubella)

What is MMR vaccine? MMR vaccine is 3 in 1 vaccine where antigens from 3 different viruses i.e. Mumps, Measles and Rubella are put into a single vial (bottle) to be administered to children as a single shot. The viruses in this vaccine had been modified to become weak and …

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Human Papilloma Virus(HPV)

What is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)? This is one of the numerous sexually transmitted diseases in adult population. It may present as unsightly genital viral warts (fleshy grape-like lesions). The infection of the cervix in women can lead to the fairly common cervical cancer later in life. What causes the …

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Typhoid Fever

What is Typhoid Fever? This is a bacterial infection of the gut or intestine causing a serious prolonged fever, blood stream infection and gut perforation. This disease is prevalent or endemic in areas with limited clean tap water supply and poor sanitation or sewage system. What causes Typhoid Fever? It …

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Hepatitis A

What is Hepatitis A? This acute disease of the liver can cause symptoms like fever, feeling-like vomiting (nausea) to a very severe liver damage and failure (hepatitis). What causes Hepatitis A? This is one of the viruses causing liver infection (hepatitis) and it is spread by the faecal oral route. …

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Rotavirus Infection

What is Rotavirus Infection? This is a common gut infection in children less than 3 years old with symptoms of watery stools (diarrhoea), vomiting and fever. The fluid losses from diarrhoea and vomiting can be life-threatening if fluid replacement is delayed. What causes the disease? Rotavirus is one of the …

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Pneumococcal Disease

What is Pneumococcal Disease? This is a bacterial disease which commonly causes throat and ear infection. It can lead to serious invasive disease namely chest infection and meningitis in some patients. What causes Pneumococcal Disease? The organism responsible is Streptococcal pneumoniae or pneumococcus which lives in the lining of the …

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Meningococcal Disease

What is Meningococcal Disease? This is a very serious bacterial infection resulting either in meningococcal septicaemia (with distinctive generalised purplish coloured raised skin lesions called purpura) or meningitis. What causes Meningococcal Disease? The bacterium responsible is Neisseria meningitidis which is present in the lining of the nose and throat of …

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Chickenpox or Varicella

What is Chickenpox? This viral infection usually causes a distinctive acute skin lesion characterised by numerous fluid-filled vesicles affecting young children. The complications include secondary bacterial infection, pneumonia and rarely viral encephalitis. Affected adults usually have more serious and distressing symptoms. What causes Chickenpox? It is caused by the varicella-zoster …

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Poliomyelitis

What is Poliomyelitis? This is a distressing infection affecting the spinal nerve that can lead to muscle weakness with resultant permanent weakness of the legs. What are the available vaccines and their possible problems? There are 2 vaccines available, namely the weakened live oral (OPV) and killed or inactivated virus …

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