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Immunisation

BCG (TB) Vaccine

What is BCG? The name stands for Bacillus Calmette Gurrain. The vaccine contains a strain/type of mycobacterium bovis which is a bacterium (germ) that causes tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The bacteria are altered so that it does not cause a TB infection, but stimulate your immune system to make your …

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Human Papilloma Virus(HPV)

What is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)? This is one of the numerous sexually transmitted diseases in adult population. It may present as unsightly genital viral warts (fleshy grape-like lesions). The infection of the cervix in women can lead to the fairly common cervical cancer later in life. What causes the …

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Typhoid Fever

What is Typhoid Fever? This is a bacterial infection of the gut or intestine causing a serious prolonged fever, blood stream infection and gut perforation. This disease is prevalent or endemic in areas with limited clean tap water supply and poor sanitation or sewage system. What causes Typhoid Fever? It …

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Hepatitis A

What is Hepatitis A? This acute disease of the liver can cause symptoms like fever, feeling-like vomiting (nausea) to a very severe liver damage and failure (hepatitis). What causes Hepatitis A? This is one of the viruses causing liver infection (hepatitis) and it is spread by the faecal oral route. …

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Influenza

Apa itu influenza? Ini adalah jangkitan virus yang kerap menyebabkan jangkitan pada hidung, tekak dan paru- paru. Gejalanya termasuk demam, selesema dan batuk. Apakah yang menyebabkan penyakit ini? Terdapat pelbagai jenis rangkaian virus selesema yang biasa. Rangkaian virus yang bertanggungjawab untuk musim selesema tertentu akan berubah dari masa ke semasa …

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Rotavirus Infection

What is Rotavirus Infection? This is a common gut infection in children less than 3 years old with symptoms of watery stools (diarrhoea), vomiting and fever. The fluid losses from diarrhoea and vomiting can be life-threatening if fluid replacement is delayed. What causes the disease? Rotavirus is one of the …

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Pneumococcal Disease

What is Pneumococcal Disease? This is a bacterial disease which commonly causes throat and ear infection. It can lead to serious invasive disease namely chest infection and meningitis in some patients. What causes Pneumococcal Disease? The organism responsible is Streptococcal pneumoniae or pneumococcus which lives in the lining of the …

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Meningococcal Disease

What is Meningococcal Disease? This is a very serious bacterial infection resulting either in meningococcal septicaemia (with distinctive generalised purplish coloured raised skin lesions called purpura) or meningitis. What causes Meningococcal Disease? The bacterium responsible is Neisseria meningitidis which is present in the lining of the nose and throat of …

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