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Normal Physical Changes

Tips To Communicate With Elderly With Hearing Problem

Sensorineural hearing loss in the elderly (Presbycusis) occurs due to degeneration process of the organ of hearing. This hearing disorder is progressive and permanent in nature. It is estimated that about 30%  of elderly of 65 to 75 years and 50% of over 75 years old are having hearing problem. …

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Hearing Loss in Golden Age

Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic conditions reported by elderly. The estimated prevalence of significant hearing impairment among people over the age of 65 is approximately 30 percent and among people over the age of 70 exceeds 50 percent. Because of the process is a gradual, person …

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Immune System

Introduction The components of natural immunity are dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer- cell and the complement system. Dendritic cells – antigen-presenting cells for CD4 +T-helper lymphocyte crucial step in initiation of the immune response. In the elderly, dendritic cells become less. Macrophages – specialize in phagocytosis and intra-cellular killing of …

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Bone

Introduction Bone is a dynamic tissue which is being replaced and remodelled throughout life. The necessary equilibrium between bone production and resorption becomes unbalanced in later life. The result is a gradual and progressive loss of bone after the age of 35. Bone loss is normally 0.2% of total bone …

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Muscle

Introduction After the age of 30, the number and size of muscle fibres progressively decline, resulting in a decrease of skeletal muscle mass and thus lean body mass. This process is termed “sarcopenia”. This process may be hastened by sedentary life. The muscle mass can still be increased or maintained …

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Joints

Introduction Joint movements are slow with age because of changes within the joints. Reaction time is also slower because of changes in the central nervous system where time lapse between the brain receiving the signal and the person responding to the signal increases with age. In healthy individual, the joint …

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Prostate

Introduction Prostate is a small and round gland in a male reproductive system. It is located  near bottom end of the bladder and  in front  of large intestine/rectum. The main function of the prostate gland is to produce seminal fluid which helps carry the sperm produced in the scrotum out …

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Bladder

Introduction The urinary system consists of one pair of kidney, two ureter, one bladder and urethra (tube which carries urine out of the body). The kidney has the ability to excrete or remove the blood waste product from the blood and form urine. The urine will flow through the ureter …

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