What is Amphetamine?
Amphetamine is a stimulant drug. Clinically, Amphetamine is used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (chronic brain condition related to disturbances in sleep-wake cycle). However, Amphetamine and its derivatives are usually abused by many people. Amphetamine and its derivatives are also known as speed, ice, ecstasy and syabu on the streets. At present, there is no product containing Amphetamine is registered in Malaysia.
How Amphetamine Reacts in the Body?
Amphetamine acts by stimulating the human central nervous system (nerves and brain) whereby it increases the release of chemical content such as norepinephrine, dopamine and noradrenaline in the body. The quantity of Amphetamine consumed gives different effects for different person. The effect depends on the size, weight, health condition or the history of amphetamine consumption of the person.
The Effects of Amphetamine Consumption
From low to moderate doses:
- Euphoria, excitement and a sense of well being
- Increase in confidence level and motivation
- Sense of power over others
- Anxious, nervous and panic
- Easily irritated and aggressive
- Blurred vision
- Irregular breathing
- Loss of coordination
- Increase in heart rate
- Acts violent and aggressive
When the Amphetamine effects start to wear off, a person may experience a range of implications. These implications can last for a few days and may include:
- Anxiety, irritable and anxious
- Became aggressive that may lead to violence
- Radical changes in behavior
Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine, Perphenazine, Prochlorperazine, Promethazine
– It decrease anorexic effect or increase psychotic symptoms
– It increases drug effect – analgesia
Phenelzine, Rasagiline, Isocarboxazid
– Hypertension crisis that may lead to death
Effects of Amphetamine Addiction
Some of the effects on long term consumption of Amphetamine is patient will be expose to high blood pressure and irregular heartbeat. Pressure towards heart can increase the risk of heart disease complications such as heart attack/stroke. Apart from that, it can also increase the risk of brain damage, malnutrition, low immunity and etc.
Long term consumption of Amphetamine can also lead to addiction and tolerance. Tolerance to Amphetamine means that, higher doses are needed to get the same kind of effect. Addiction to Amphetamine includes psychological, physical or both. A person with psychological addiction always feel that they need to take Amphetamine when socializing. Meanwhile, physical addiction occurs when a person’s body only works with the presence of Amphetamine. When a person starts to become addicted towards Amphetamine it is quite hard to stop.
Withdrawal symptom starts 2 to 3 days after the last consumption of Amphetamine and the symptom will ease off after a week until 10 days. Some of the symptoms include:
- Anxiety, irritable
- Extreme fatigue
Long term consumption of Amphetamine and its derivatives increases the speed of weight loss by reducing appetite. However, the consumption is an extremely high risk that may lead to death. Users are advised to take extra precautions with slimming products available in the market. There are slimming products detected containing drugs in order to obtain visible weight loss. Counterfeit slimming products may produce effects as mention above especially heart attack/stroke.
There are lots of reason to promote the abuse of Amphetamine. Some people take Amphetamine to improve performance in sport or work and to boost confidence. However, it is always abuse to be high and excited. Based on report by Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan (AADK), the number of Amphetamine and its derivatives addiction is the highest after heroin, morphine and ganja. Each year shows an increase in the number of seizures of the Amphetamine pills and its derivatives. In year 2012, 11,321,142 pills and its derivatives were seizure and the estimated value were RM 195,286,299.
Amphetamine for Weight Loss
If you’re overweight, the best option to reduce weight is by carrying out healthy lifestyle which includes a well-balanced diet and exercise. Ministry of Health Malaysia has conducted many campaigns and provided a lot of reference materials to encourage the community to carry out a healthy lifestyle. More information on the campaigns and reference materials are available in the Ministry of Health Malaysia website, www.moh.gov.my. Nutrition Month Malaysia 2014 campaign with the slogan ‘Eat Right, Move More: Fight Obesity’ is currently ongoing and this campaign can be the starting point for you to change your lifestyle.
- Website Biro Pengawalan Farmaseutikal Kebangsaan (www.bpfk.gov.my)
- Drug Info : Facts and Resources About Alcohol and Drugs. Retrieved 12.03.14, from http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/amphetamines
- Cerner Multum Inc. Amphetamine. Retrieved 12.03.14, from http://www.drugs.com/amphetamine.html
- DrugBank – Amphetamine. Retrieved 01.04.14, from http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00182
- Better Health Channel : Amphetamine Fact Sheet. Retrieved 01.04.14, from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Amphetamines
- Maklumat Dadah 2012 (Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan, Kementerian Dalam Negeri)
- Website Ministry of Health Malaysia (www.moh.gov.my)
|Last Reviewed||:||04 December 2014|
|Writer/Translator||:||Nur Izyani bt. Hanafi|
|Accreditor||:||Nur Sufiza bt. Ahmad|