Removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death.


Types of abortions

Spontaneous abortion – also known as miscarriage

  • – pregnancy termination due to natural causes
  • incorrect replication of chromosomes or environmental factors
  • or accidental trauma.

Medical abortion (therapeutic) – termination of pregnancy based on medical indications as listed below:

  • To save the life of the pregnant woman
  • To preserve the woman’s physical or mental health
  • To prevent delivery of a fetus detected to have serious defects

Induced abortion – abortion that has been caused by deliberate human action, usually voluntarily due to :

  • Desire to delay or end childbearing
  • concern over the interruption of work or education
  • Issues of financial or relationship stability
  • Lack of access or rejection of contraception resulting in unplanned, unwanted pregnancy

Methods of induced abortion

Medical abortion

  • Also known as chemical abortion
  • Agents commonly used include mifepristone and prostaglandins, usually during early stage of pregnancy

Surgical abortion

  • Vacuum aspiration (manual or electronic – using electronic suction) – for the first twelve weeks of pregnancy
  • Dilatation and curettage (D&C) – for 15th to 24th week of pregnancy
  • Intact dilatation and extraction (partial-birth abortion) – for advanced, third trimester pregnancy

Complications of induced abortion

  • Laceration to the cervix
  • Perforation of the uterus
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Infection to the reproductive organs
  • Sterility
  • Death – due to anesthetic complications, severe bleeding or uncontrolled infection

Issues related to induced abortion

For years, induced abortion has initiated many public debates and concern from the:

  • Ethical
  • Moral
  • Philosophical
  • Biological
  • Religious
  • Legal aspects

Public opinions on induced abortion are divided into two main groups:

  • Pro-choice group, who supports abortion as a mean of allowing women to make their own reproductive decisions
  • Pro-life group, who is against abortion and regards it as a cruel form of murdering a fetus which has the right to live


Teenagers considering abortion must not proceed without first consulting trusted adults and trained medical personnel.

Abortion is not legalized in Malaysia except for certain medical reasons. Any individual considering abortion must be aware of the legal implications as it is an offence to be involved in induced abortions, not indicated by medical reasons, in the Penal Codes of Malaysian law.

Muslims who wish to know more about the rulings (fatwa) on abortions are encouraged to log on to: http://www.e-fatwa.gov.my/jakim/keputusan-kategori.asp.


Last Reviewed : 27 April 2012
Content Writer : Dr. Harlina Halizah bt. Hj. Siraj
Reviewer : Dr. Salmah bt. Nordin
Dr. Norizzati Bukhary bt. Ismail Bukhary