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Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Treatment In Human Immune Deficiency (HIV)

Introduction

Tuberculosis prevention treatment is given to HIV carrers/patients to prevent them from getting active TB.

Why do HIV carriers/patients is prone to get TB

The HIV virus reduces a persons the immune system. HIV carriers/patients is easily infected with organisms which does not cause any harm to those without HIV. One who has a normal immune system does not have any problem to overcome TB infection.

HIV infection increases the risk of active TB disease significantly, during which time, the HIV virus multiples rapidly. The yearly risk of developing active TB in HIV carriers/patients is 5-10%.

TB preventive treatment in HIV patients

TB preventative therapy can be given to HIV carriers/patients. This is done by giving a medication called isoniazid. The term given to this preventative regimen is isoniazid prophylaxis therapy or IPT. Isoniazid prophylaxis therapy reduces the risk of getting active TB to 33%.

Who should receive TB prevention therapy

This is given to HIV carriers/patients who does not have active TB and to those who will not default treatment.

Side effects of IPT

Side effects of isoniazid is peripheral neuropathy, and this is experienced as tingling sensation or numbness at the periphery of the upper and lower limbs. This can be prevented by the concomitant administration of vitamin B6. Isoniazid can also cause subclinical inflammation of the liver.

Clinical Monitoring During TB Preventative Therapy is given

Those receiving IPT should be monitored closely so that they do not default medication. This is because, IPT is given for a period of 6 months and has to be taken daily. Isoniazid is one of the key medication to treat active TB. It is difficult to treat active TB in someone who defaults treatment isoniazid treatment.

 

Last Reviewed : 9 May 2014
Writer : Dr. Norhaya bt. Mohd Razali