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Tooth Stabilisation

Introduction

It is a dental procedure that will make a mobile tooth become more stable and firm in the biting position. It is usually done in the dental clinic or emergency department facilities.

Causes of Tooth Mobility

Each tooth demonstrates different structure and shape. The function of each also differs in terms of mastication function as well as for aesthetic function. One can never be replace the anterior teeth with posterior teeth because it serves a different function in the oral cavity.

The tooth mobility can be caused by internal and external factors. The internal cause is mainly due to gum diseases and abnormal habits. Gum disease is a major factor that can cause tooth mobility. The disease will cause continuous bone damage that surrounds and holds the teeth and consequently will lead to permanent bone damage. Loss of bone structure will lead to teeth mobility via losing the important structure to hold the teeth in the normal position. This will definitely reduced the function of teeth and disturb mastication.

The external factor is dental trauma due to motor vehicle accident, assault or non accidental injury. Dental trauma is the most common cause of tooth mobility in young adults. The tooth may also be fractured. In some cases there are associated jaw fractures.

Abnormal habits like teeth grinding at night can cause heavy injury to the teeth supporting structure. People with deep bite may have a traumatic bite which can cause tooth mobility.

Clinical Presentation

Patient usually will come in complaining of mobile teeth that maybe accompanied by gingival bleeding. Halitosis or bad breath also may be present. It may also present with exposed teeth roots due to loss of gingival and bone attachments that will lead to other clinical presentation of teeth sensitivity.

Impact to general health

Mobile teeth can affect the ability to chew properly. Teeth mobility due to gum disease can cause aesthetic deterioration because of expose teeth roots and gingival bleeding. It can reduce patient’s self confidence also due to bad breath/halitosis from the gum disease.

Types of splint

Mobile teeth can be stabilised and maintained in the functional position via splinting or joined together so that biting load will be distributed evenly to the neighbouring teeth rather than the single loosened teeth

Temporary splinting can be done with composite or composite and wire.

If the cause of teeth mobility is due to nocturnal grinding and occlusal trauma, removable occlusal splint or bite guard are very useful in protecting the teeth.

Another method of treatment sometimes used is via orthodontic treatment using brackets and arch wires.

The underlying disease must be treated as well. The patients also need to be on soft diet for a while to minimise the biting load to the mobile teeth. The prognosis of the teeth must be considered before embarking on the treatment procedure. Consult with your dental surgeon/specialist for complete examination and consultation to know all your options

References

  1. www.dentaltraumaguide.com
  2. www.fibrebond.biz/patients/periodontal-splints.php
  3. www.aae.org/patients/treatments-and-procedures/traumatic-dental-injuries
  4. http://www.deardoctor.com/inside-the-magazine/issue-15/splinting-treatment-for-loose-teeth
Last Reviewed : 3 June 2014
Writer : Dr. Nazer b. Berahim
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