Normal Physical Changes

Sensorineural hearing loss in the elderly (Presbycusis) occurs due to degeneration process of the organ of hearing. This hearing disorder is progressive and permanent in nature. It is estimated that about 30%  of elderly of 65 to 75 years and 50% of over 75 years old are having hearing problem ...
Read More
Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic conditions reported by elderly. The estimated prevalence of significant hearing impairment among people over the age of 65 is approximately 30 percent and among people over the age of 70 exceeds 50 percent. Because of the process is a gradual, person ...
Read More
Introduction The components of natural immunity are dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer- cell and the complement system. Dendritic cells – antigen-presenting cells for CD4 +T-helper lymphocyte crucial step in initiation of the immune response. In the elderly, dendritic cells become less. Macrophages – specialize in phagocytosis and intra-cellular killing of ...
Read More
Introduction Bone is a dynamic tissue which is being replaced and remodelled throughout life. The necessary equilibrium between bone production and resorption becomes unbalanced in later life. The result is a gradual and progressive loss of bone after the age of 35. Bone loss is normally 0.2% of total bone ...
Read More
Introduction After the age of 30, the number and size of muscle fibres progressively decline, resulting in a decrease of skeletal muscle mass and thus lean body mass. This process is termed “sarcopenia”. This process may be hastened by sedentary life. The muscle mass can still be increased or maintained ...
Read More
Introduction Joint movements are slow with age because of changes within the joints. Reaction time is also slower because of changes in the central nervous system where time lapse between the brain receiving the signal and the person responding to the signal increases with age. In healthy individual, the joint ...
Read More
Introduction Prostate is a small and round gland in a male reproductive system. It is located  near bottom end of the bladder and  in front  of large intestine/rectum. The main function of the prostate gland is to produce seminal fluid which helps carry the sperm produced in the scrotum out ...
Read More
Introduction The urinary system consists of one pair of kidney, two ureter, one bladder and urethra (tube which carries urine out of the body). The kidney has the ability to excrete or remove the blood waste product from the blood and form urine. The urine will flow through the ureter ...
Read More
Introduction Ageing is a slow and normal process.  Not everyone experience aging at the same rate or the same method. Organs function starts to decline at a different rate, starting from the age of 30 years where the body cells start to reduce in numbers especially brain cells, liver and ...
Read More
Introduction Lung function gradually declines after age 20. In the absence of lung insults (eg, smoking, exposure to environmental toxins or previous lung infections), most elderly people have enough lung reserve to avoid any breathing symptoms. However, in smokers/ former smokers and those exposed to environmental toxins, injury due to ...
Read More
Introduction As people age, the heart and blood vessels change in many ways. However, regular exercise can reduce many of the effects of aging on the heart and blood vessels. Sign & Symptoms The walls of the arteries (a type of blood vessel) become thicker and less elastic. The arteries ...
Read More
Introduction Hair starts to gray in about 50% of people by age 50, mainly due to the loss of melanocytes (pigment-producing cells). The degree of hair graying often runs in families, however, the responsible genes are unknown. Sign & Symptoms As people age, hair becomes thinner, more brittle and loses ...
Read More
Introduction The skin changes in many ways as people age. On the positive side, the skin tends to become less sensitive to substances, so allergic rashes become less common. On the negative side, the skin thins and becomes drier, less elastic, and more fragile. Thus, as people age, skin disorders ...
Read More
Introduction The likelihood of reaching age 65 year with all or most teeth intact is much greater than in previous generations. However, about 1/3 of adults more than age 65 are missing part or all of their teeth (edentulism). Although dentition (or teeth) may be well preserved in the absence ...
Read More
Introduction Generally, the abilities to taste and smell start to gradually diminish as people age. The abilities to taste with the tongue and to smell with the nose are both needed to enjoy the full range of flavors in food. The tongue can identify only basic tastes e.g. sweet, sour, ...
Read More
Introduction As people age, they may hear less well and balance may become difficult to maintain. These changes occur because some structures in the ear that help with hearing or balance deteriorate with age. Moreover, earwax tends to accumulate more in elderly. This accumulation can interfere with hearing. The importance ...
Read More
Introduction For most people, eyesight is the most treasured of the senses. The eyes undergo many changes with aging. Between the ages of 40 and 50, most people notice that seeing close objects becomes difficult. In addition, many eye disorders become more common with aging, so many people experience visual ...
Read More
Introduction As people age, the number of nerve cells in the brain decreases. Brain weight decreases by 20% by age 90, selective nerve cells loss of between 5 and 50% and cells tend to shrink. Because of these changes, the brain may function slightly less well. Older people may react ...
Read More