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Low Cholesterol Diet

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a type of fat (called as lipid) required by your body to work properly. Your body can both produce cholesterol at the liver and obtain it from dietary sources. Cholesterol molecules are transported by blood in protein capsule called as lipoprotein, there’re two main types of cholesterol, i.e.

LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol tends to get deposited in the blood vessels forming blocks, and increase the risk of cardiovascular complications

HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol prevents blocks by removing the deposited cholesterol from the blood vessels. So, it lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications.

Recommendation of Diet Modification

Objective:

  • To achieve and maintain cholesterol level at normal range.
  • To reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Diet therapy is able to reduce total cholesterol by 10-15%.

Example of High Cholesterol Food

Food
Portion/ Weight (g)
Cholesterol (mg)
Cow’s liver
½ cup (124)
356
Chicken’s liver
2 pieces (105)
353
Duck’s egg
1 whole (73)
243
Quail’s egg
5 wholes (60)
188
Shrimp
3 oz.
166
Chicken’s egg
1 small (53)
157
Anchovy
½ cup (28)
86
  1. Limit the high cholesterol food intake

    • The use of no more than 2 egg yolks per week.

    • Limit the food made from egg yolk such as cake and cookies.

    • Limit the intake of internal organ product e.g. brain, liver, bile and spleen.

    • Avoid the head or roe of seafood such as fish (curry fish head), prawn and crab.

  2. Modification for food preparation / recipe
      • Remove the fat and skin of the chicken/ meat before cooking.

      • Choose healthy cooking methods (steamed, boiled, roasted and baked).

      • Reduce the usage of oil when cooking, e.g. using non-stick pan.

      • Use blended oil for cooking.

      • Recommend to increase the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids such as fish (salmon, cod, tuna, herring and carp), walnut, flaxseed oil and green leafy vegetables.
  3. Increase fibre intake
    • To take 20-25g of fibre a day, including 2-3 servings of fruits, 3-4 servings of vegetables and 5-7 servings of wholegrain products.
    • Recommend to take at least 10-15g soluble fibre a day because it can reduce the LDL-cholesterol level.

Sample Menu – Low Cholesterol

Breakfast:
Wholemeal bread + soft margarine : 2 slices
Unsweetened soy milk

 

Makan Tengah hari:
Rice : 1 bowl
Ikan masak singgang : 1 piece
Stir-fried cabbage : ½ cup
Stir-fried kangkung : ½ cup
PUFA cooking oil : 1 tablespoon
Papaya : 1 slice

 

Afternoon Tea:
Sardine sandwich : 2 pieces
Tea + low fat milk + sugar : ½ cup + 1 teaspoon

 

Dinner:
Capati : 1 piece
Curry chicken without coconut milk : 1 piece
Dhal : ½ cup
Spinach : ½ cup
PUFA cooking oil : 1 tablespoon
Guava : 1 slice

Nutritional Analysis

Energy
1747 kkal
Carbohydrate
238g (53%)
Protein
80g (18%)
Fat
57g (29%)
Cholesterol
138g
Dietary Fibre
24.5g

 

References:

  1. Ministry of Health, Malaysia. 2011. Clinical practices guidelines on management of dyspilidemia.
  2. Malaysian Dietitians’ Association. 2005. Medical nutrition therapy guidelines for Hyperlipidemia.
  3. American Dietetic Association. 2007. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitian of Canada: dietary fatty acids. J Am Diet Assoc. 107:1599-1611.
Last reviewed : 07 August 2012
Writer : Yeo Pei Sien