This phenomenon is common for parents who have child that has difficulty in /s/ and /z/ sounds production. It is known as Speech Sound Disorder . /s/ and z/ sounds are late bloomers sounds that the child may acquire it from age of three to eight years old. See Speech Sound Development Chart.
How to produce /s/ and /z/ sounds?
There are two techniques for production of /s/ and /z/ sounds:
First technique: /s/ sound
First technique: /z/ sound
Second technique: /s/ and /z/ sounds
- Tip of the tongue touch front lower teeth.
- Raise back of the tongue until side of the tongue touch the upper teeth.
- There are place in the middle of the tongue that allows air escape through it.
- /s/ is unvoiced sound. Vocal folds are not vibrates.
- Vibration of vocal folds for /z/ sound production.
Videos for production of /s/ and /z/ sounds
What errors that usually occur?
Below are the error patterns that usually occur in the conversation:
|Substitution to plosive sound||
/sick/ ? /tick/
/zip/ ? /dip/
|Children substituted the fricative sound /s,z/ to the plosive sound /p,b,t,k,g’. This process disappears approximately around three to five years old.|
|Substitution of /s/ or /z/ sound to back sound||
/sun/ ? /shun/
|Children substituted the fricative /s,z/ to back sound /sh,ch,j/|
|Deletion of /s/ or /z/ sound||
/sit/ ? /it/
/zoo/ ? /u/
|This process occurred when a child delete the sound either at the initial, middle or final position of word.|
What are the strategies to produce /s/ and /z/ sound?
Below are some of the strategies used to help in the production of /s/ and /z/ :
- Verbal Prompt
- Produce the target sound clearly and accurately.
- Give time for the child to listen, process and imitate the sound.
- If the child is able to say it correctly, move on to syllables (e.g:/as/, /asa/, /sa/ or /iz/, /izi/, /zi/), words (e.g: /sock/, /bus/,/zoo/, /zebra/), sentences and conversational level.
- Visual Prompt
- Practice in front of the mirror.
- Place the index finger at the side of the lips.
- Pull the index finger until reach the ears while produce /s/ or /z/ sound.
- Tactile Prompt
- Put the hand in front of the child’s mouth.
- Produce /s/ or /z/ sound.
- Let the child feels the air that escapes from the mouth.
- Place the other hand at the neck area to feel the vibration of vocal fold when produce /z/ sound.
- Retraining Tongue Placement
- Bring the tip of the tongue touch the upper front teeth.
- Close the teeth tightly.
- From the /t/ sound position of the tongue, pull back the tongue until reach the behind upper teeth while produce the air.
- Spread the lips like “smile” position.
- Butterfly Procedure
- Used for child who makes the error of substitution of fricative sound. E.g: /sock/ ?/ /shock/
- Imagery likes strong vs floppy wings; where the child is able to feel the air that escapes through the side of the mouth.
- Air should escape through the middle area of the tongue.
Below are some of the /s/ and /z/ in word level.
Videos of the /s/ and /z/ sound production at initial, medial and final position in word
- Production of /s/ sound at initial, medial and final position in word
- Production of /z/ sound at initial, medial and final position in word
Do You Have The Same Problem? Do You Need Help?
Don’t wait! Please see Speech therapist nearby for help….
- Bowen, C. (2011, November, 14): Butterfly procedure. Posted in http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 48:butterfly&catid=11:admin&Itemid=121
- McLeod, S. (2009). Speech sound acquisition. In J. E. Bernthal, N. W. Bankson & P. Flipsen Jnr (Eds.), Articulation and phonological disorders: Speech sound disorder in children (6th ed., pp 63-120 + 385-405). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
- Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, and Bird (1990), Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorder, 55, 779-798, from therapytoolbox.com/blog-entry/milestones-acquisition-speech sound
- Sowrian, G. (2012, September 21). Improve Your Pronunciation-Study Session 8. Posted to http://www.myenglishclub.com/profiles/blogs/08-improve-your-pronunciation-study-session-8
- Templin, 1957; Wellman et al., 1931, in Sanders-Journal Of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1973, from www.nona-cdc.com/SPEECH SOUND DEVELOPMENT CHART
|Last Reviewed||:||28 August 2020|
|Writer / Translator||:||Nurul Haslina bt. Mohd Zin|
|Accreditor||:||Marina bt. Abdul Malek|
|Reviewer||:||Nadwah bt. Onwi|