Heart Failure

Heart failure is a complex condition that can result from any disorder that affects the ability of the heart to pump blood adequately to meet the demands of the body.Prevalence increases with advancing age. Causes of heart failure:

  • Coronary heart disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart valve problems
  • Abnormalities of heart rhythm
  • Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathies)
  • Diabetes
  • Alcohol related heart disease
  • Thyroid heart disease


  • Tiredness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Limitation of physical activities
  • Leg swelling


  • Limitation in activities of daily living
  • Frequent hospital admissions
  • High death rate (about 10-50% die in a year depending on severity)


Non Pharmacological

  • Fluids and salt restriction
  • Regular exercise as tolerated
  • Stop smoking and alcohol


  • Medications are available to improve symptoms and survival
  • Optimize treatment of high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and abnormal heart rhythm
  • It is vital to take medicines regularly as advised by your doctor


  • Healthy lifestyle:
    • Exercise
    • Healthy diet
    • No smoking and alcohol
    • High cholesterol
    • Diabetes
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Abnormal heart rhythm


Structured and targeted rehabilitation program to achieve optimal functions and quality of life.

Support Groups

  • Yayasan Jantung Malaysia / The Heart Foundation of Malaysia(www.yjm.org.my)
Last Review : 25 May 2009
Writer : Dr. Joseph Ngeh
  : Dr. Mohd Daud bin Che Yusof
  : Dr. R. Sukumar a/l Rajaretnam