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Growth and Developtment of Infants and Children Up To 2 Years

Growth and development of infants and children is important to parents. Parents who are sensitive about the phase of growth and development of their children from birth to adulthood can help in the physical development, cognitive, language, social, moral, personality etc. In addition, it also helps in the process of training and educating children in accordance with the level of understanding of the needs of the infant or children.

Each infant or child has different developments.

 Age Normal Development Abnormal Development 

From birth (0-4 weeks)

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Most new born will:

  • Move mouth toward stimulus and start sucking
  • Hands and feet moving actively
  • Reacting to the sound of the bell
  • The hands and feet are not active
  • No reaction to the sound of the bell

 4-6 weeks

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  • The ability to control upright position of the head
  • The ability to bend the elbow slightly
  • Unable to control the position of the head when the body is pull into sitting position
  • Both elbows are straight (no flexion)

 6 weeks – 3 months

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  • Able to lift the head slightly when put to lie on the belly(prone lying)
  • Able to support with both arms
  • Unable to turn the head to the side, and not able to lift his head. 

 3 – 6 months

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Baby becoming increasingly strong and agile:

  • Able to lie on the belly(prone lying)
  • Can turn his body from supine to prone position.
  • Pushing the body forward and pull the body up to cling to something.
  • Reach out and touch object.
  • Gripping and bring object to the mouth.
  • Attentive when seeing moving objects (eg toys that produce sound)
  • Unable to lie on the belly (prone lying)
  • Unable turn from supine to prone
  • Slow to reach / pick up objects.

 

 6 – 9 months

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Most babies:

  • Able to sit by himself / sit with support.
  • Pick and bring object close to the body.
  • Able to transfer objects to both hands.
  • Able to support the body when seated.
  • Not able to sit with support.
  • Less use of hand for activities
  • Not able to balance the body if seated

 8 – 10 months

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Able to crawl  Not able to crawl

 9 – 12 months

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At this stage, the baby will: 

  • Stand independently
  • Walking with aid
  • Pushing and playing with balls
  • Throwing objects
  • Pick up objects with thumb and other fingers.
  • Dropping and picking up again objects
  • Not able to stand by himself
  • Not able to pull the body to stand with help or support.

 1 – 2 years

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At this age

  • Walking becomes easier
  • Able to squat
  • Able to climb / descend stairs with assistance or holding onto something
  • Able to kick ball
  • Starts to run
 Unable to walk and run 

The above shows the growth and development of infants and children in general. This can help parents to identify if children are experiencing slow development to give warning to parents to consult a paediatrician for further management. In addition to that, physiotherapist is very important to help with the development of infants and children according to their ages as stated above.

Reference

  1. Paulson, L. (2007). ‘Let’s talk’: Books & Babies. Retrieved January 21, 2014, from inspiritoo.com/id5/developmental-milestones-chart-for-infants.html.
  2. Werner, D. Child Development and Developmental Delay: Disabled Village Children, A guide for community health workers, rehabilitation workers, and families. Retrieved January 21, 2014, from http://www.dinf.ne.jp/doc/english/global/david/dwe002/dwe00236.html
  3. Nisha, M. Milestones Of Child Development. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?isbn=8178354985 [January 21, 2014]
  4. Sharman C, ?Cross W & Vennis, V. Observing Children: A Practical Guide. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?isbn=0826472389 [January 21, 2014]
  5. Wiseman, D. The American Family: Understanding Its Changing Dynamics and Place in Society. Retrieved from books.google.com/books?isbn=0398078351 [January 21, 2014]
  6. Milestones of Child Development: A Guide to Young Children’s Learning and Development from Birth to Kindergarten (2008). http://www.earlychildhood.virginia.gov

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  1. (2014) Bayi sihat. Di ambil dari 10 ogos 2015 dari www.bayikusehat.com
Last Reviewed : 1st August 2017
Writer : Syarifah Nora binti Syed Husli
Translator : Halimah binti Hashim
Accreditor : Se To Phui Lin