The hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly not only affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems but will also affect the male fertility. Male fertility refers to the ability of a man to produce high quality of sperm with a normal sperm morphology, count and motility. However, cigarette smoking will reduce sperm production and sperm motility. Despite, smoking will also produce abnormal sperm morphology. Sperm is important to fertilize the egg and maintain the offspring.
Sperm Morphology, Count and Motility
Figure 1: Normal and Abnormal Sperm Morphology
Source from D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak et al., “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” New England Journal of Medicine 345, no. 19 (November 8, 2001).
Figure 2: Sperm Count, Morphology, and Motility
Source from Guzick et al., “Sperm Morphology, Motility and Concentration,” NEJM 345 (2001)
Table 1 shown range for the fertile, intermediate and infertile sperm count, morphology and motility
|Fertile||> 48||> 63||> 12|
|Infertile||< 13.5||< 13.5||< 9|
Table 1: Source from http://www.healthematics.com/understanding-semen-analysis-results-whats-normal-whats-abnormal/
Composition of Cigarette Smoke
Cigarette smoke consists of gases, vaporized liquids and particles. Table 2 shown few of the chemicals found in tobacco smoke:
|Acetone||found in nail polish remover|
|Acetic Acid||an ingredient in hair dye|
|Ammonia||a common household cleaner|
|Arsenic||used in rat poison|
|Benzene||found in rubber cement|
|Butane||used in lighter fluid|
|Cadmium||active component in battery acid|
|Carbon Monoxide||released in car exhaust fumes|
|Nicotine||used as insecticide|
|Tar||material for paving roads|
|Toluene||used to manufacture paint|
Table 2: Source from http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/about-smoking/facts-figures/whats-in-a-cigarette
Smoking and Decreased Sperm Quality
Studies on male smoking have shown a decrease in the quality of sperm. Some of the effects included:
- Sperm count: Male smokers have shown a 23% decrease in sperm count.
- Sperm motility: Male smokers have shown a 13% decrease in sperm motility.
- Sperm morphology: Male smokers have shown abnormal sperm morphology.
In summary, the percentage of male fertility decreased on male smokers and will affect the sperm count, sperm motility and sperm morphology.
- D. S. Guzick, J. W. Overstreet, P. Factor-Litvak et al., “Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men,” New England Journal of Medicine 345, no. 19 (November 8, 2001).
- Guzick et al., “Sperm Morphology, Motility and Concentration,” NEJM 345 (2001)
|Last Reviewed||:||04 January 2016|
|Writer||:||Fatin Hanani bt. Baharuddin|
|Accreditor||:||Krishnan a/l Kanniah|