Goals of Dietary Management
1) To achieve and maintain :
- Blood sugar level within normal range
|Fasting||4.4 – 6.1 mmol/l|
|Non-fasting||4.4 – 8.0 mmol/l|
|HbA1c||< 6.5 %|
- Blood lipid and cholesterol level in normal range
|HDL cholesterol||1.1 mmol/L|
|LDL cholesterol||2.6 mmol/L|
- Blood pressure ∼ 130/80mmHg.
- Body Mass Index (BMI) within 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m².
2) To prevent or slower diabetes complication combined with regular medication intake, diet modification and exercise.
Carbohydrates are a source of energy and include foods composed of starches and sugars. Almost all carbohydrates are found in plants, with the exception of dairy products.
Most carbohydrates break down into glucose which can influence blood sugar levels. Eating the right amount of carbohydrates and the right type of carbohydrates is so important.
Carbohydrates can be divided into two groups as follows :
(Foods to be avoided)
(Foods to be consumed in restricted amounts)
1) Cereals and grain product
2) Starchy vegetables
3) Legumes and lentils
Foods which can be taken without limit
- Green-leafy vegetables (spinach/ mustard leaves/ kale/ swamp cabbage), long beans, tomato, cucumber/parsley, etc.
- All liquid and beverages without sugar : Chinese tea, plain water, barley, coffee and tea.
- Herbs and spices : chilli powder, curry powder, cinnamon, clove, coriander seeds, ginger, lemon grass, cumin seeds, pepper, tamarind and turmeric.
Other nutrients in a balanced diet
- Eat protein foods moderately such as 2-3 servings a day.
- Choose protein foods that are low in fat, for example fish, poultry without skin and lean meat.
- Excessive fat intake will increase your calorie intake and weight and you are prone to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure.
- Reduced total fat/oil intake especially saturated fat like ghee, coconut cream, cream, coconut oil, butter and mayonnaise.
- Fibre from plant sources are difficult to digest. Fibre is important as it slows down glucose absorption into blood stream. Fibre also increases satiety level and prevents constipation.
- There are 2 types of fibre :
- Soluble fibre : oats, legumes, vegetables, fruits.
- Insoluble fibre : whole meal products, brown rice, whole meal biscuits.
Diabetic Food Products
- Diabetic food products such as diabetic jam and diabetic chocolate should be taken in caution. These products still contain carbohydrates. Please check with the dietitian/nutritionist regarding these food products.
- Artificial sweeteners make food taste sweet and have no calorie. Artificial sweetener does not raise blood glucose level. Please check with dietitian/nutritionist on the amount and type you can take.
- Hypoglycaemia is a condition where blood glucose level falls in the range of 2.2 – 4.4 mmol/L. However, it may vary between individuals.
- Conditions that cause hypoglycaemia include no food intake, excessive exercise, excessive alcohol or insulin intake.
- Signs of hypoglycaemia : excessive cold sweat, shivering, dizziness, excessive hunger, palpitation, blurred vision and easily angered.
- Steps to overcome hypoglycaemia :
- Check your blood glucose level immediately
- If blood glucose is low (2.2 – 4.4mmol/L), immediately eat any one of the foods listed below :
Type of food Measurement White glucose 1 table spoon Honey 2 table spoons Packet drinks/sweetened fruit juices ½ pack (125 ml) Sweets 3 pieces
- Continue monitoring your blood sugar after 15 minutes. If the blood glucose is still low, repeat the intake of one of the foods above (based on measurement). Whenever possible, have your meal immediately.
- Repeat your blood glucose measurement after 1 hour.
- To prevent hypoglycaemia, diabetic patients should be consistent with meal times and the amount of carbohydrate intake at each meal.
|Last reviewed||:||5 January 2012|
|Writer||:||Norizan Mashttah bt. Mardan|
|Mahnon Suria bt. Mokhy|
|Siti Farrah Zaidah bt. Mohd Yazid|
|Junidah bt. Raib|