What is diabetic retinopathy?
Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes.Diabetic retinopathy occur as a result of weakness of the blood vessels causing leakage of lipid content and occlusion of capillaries. Ii can cause poor vision which eventually lead to blindness.
Who will be at a higher risk of getting diabetic retinopathy?
- All Type I and II Diabetic patient who has poor sugar control level (high HbA1c)
- Diabetic in pregnancy
- Poor control of Hypertension and cholesterol
- Patient with longer duration of Diabetes (more than 5 years)
- Diabetic patient with low haemoglobin level
- Diabetic patient with overweight or obesity
What are the retinal changes in diabetic patient?
There are 4 stages of Diabetic retinopathy :
Diabetic Maculopathy (edema)
Occur as a result of leaking vessels causing swelling of the central part of retina (macula).
How does diabetic retinopathy affect vision?
- Blurred vision due to bleeding from new vessels within eyeball.
- Blurred vision due to detached retina following traction by the retinal scar.
- Diabetic Maculopathy (oedema)
- Vitreous haemorrhage
- Tractional retinal detachment
What is the treatment for diabetic retinopathy?
- Control sugar level by:
- Proper diet control. Advice can be obtained from dietitian.
- Compliant to medication
- Lifestyle modification: Exercise, stop smoking, minimize alcohol intake
- Laser treatment
Aim of laser treatment is not to improve vision. It is:
- To reduce or stop progression of swelling at macula
- To reduce risk of bleeding or re-bleeding in the eyeball
Surgical procedure to remove the blood clot and retinal scar in the eyeball.
What are the complications of diabetic retinopathy?
- Tractional retinal detachment :
- Vitreous hemorrhage (bleeding in eyeball) will result in scarring effect which will pull the retinal layer (traction) and cause retinal detachment.
- This will warrant surgery to remove the blood and the scar to allow retina to get back to its original position
- Visual outcome maybe guarded if disease is advanced and longstanding (irreversible damage to the retina)
- If left untreated will lead to blindness
- Rubeotic glaucoma
- Increased intraocular pressure as a result of prolonged oxygen deprivation state
- This will lead to damage to optic nerve and if left untreated will cause PAINFUL BLIND EYE.
|Last reviewed||:||20 June 2014|
|Writer||:||Dr. Norhafizah Hamzah|
|Accreditor||:||Dr. Salmah Othman|
|Reviewer||:||Dr. Rosniza Ab. Razak|