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Designs of Fitness Programme for a Well Person

  • Frequency, Intensity, Time and Types principle (FITT).
  • Caloric Expenditure Principles / Exercise energy expenditure.

Frequency, Intensity, Time and Types principle (FITT).

Intensity( %)
Measurement (Max Heart Rate)
55
very light
65
moderate
70
somewhat hard
80
hard
90
very hard
95
very,very hard
100
maximum

 

Cardio respiratory (Aerobic) Fitness
Frequency: 3 to 5 days per week
Intensity:

60% to 80% of maximum heart rate (Target Heart Rate)
Formula: (220 – age x 60% to 220 – age x 80%)
e.g: A 30 year old will calculate target heart as follows:

220-30=
190 x 60% = 114
190 x 80% = 152

This individual would try to keep his heart rate between 114 to 152 beats per minute;
Time: Warm-up for 5 to 10 minutes , exercise at the desired intensity for 20 to 60 minutes, and cool down for 5 to 10 minutes.
Type: Any activity you enjoy which is repetitive, continuous, and uses large muscle groups (thighs, buttocks, arms), such as:
swimming
walking
cycling
running
rowing
arm cranking
jogging
dancing
stepping
stair climbing
rope skipping
Progression: As your body adapts to one level of exercise, you have to either pick up the pace or exercise for longer periods of time in order to achieve improvement
  • Ref: American College of Sports Medicine and Center For Disease Control and Prevention
Flexibility
Frequency: At least 3 days per week.
Intensity: Stretch to the point of mild discomfort. (not pain)
Time: Stretch 10 to 30 seconds ; hold 10 to 30 seconds; relax to your original position. Perform 3 to 5 repetitions per stretch. Breathe normally as you perform these stretches.
Type: Static ( slow, gentle, smooth movements) with a major emphasis on the lower back, hips and thighs.
Progression: As flexibility improves, you should be able to stretch further before experiencing discomfort.
  • Ref: American College of Sports Medicine and Center for Disease Control And Prevention (ACSM-CDC)
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Frequency: 2 to 3 times a week with 48 hours between exercise bouts for each muscle group
Intensity: For strength (increasing muscle size): 80% to 90% of maximum lift for each muscle group, 3 to 4 repetitions per set and 1 to 2 sets per muscle group For toning (or endurance): 50% to 60% of maximum lift for each muscle group, 8 to 12 repetitions per set and 1 to 3 sets per muscle group
Time: Warm-up aerobically for 5 to 10 minutes to increase your core temperature to loosen your muscles 2 seconds to lift while exhaling, and 2 to 4 seconds to relax while inhaling **Never hold your breath while lifting heavy weights!! It is important to establish a breathing rhythm with the weight lifting movement.
Type: any activity which applies a resistance to your muscles, including:
free weights
strength training machines
elastics/bands
conditioning exercises
isometric exercises
Progression: As it becomes easier to lift a particular weight, one can increase the number of repetitions or sets for that particular weight, or increase the weight by 3 to 5 pounds and perform fewer repetitions and sets.
  • Ref: American College of Sports Medicine and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM-CDC)

Exercise Workload

A metabolic equivalent (METS) is defined as multiples of resting metabolic rate . Exercises performed at 2 METS requires double the resting metabolism, 3 METS requires triple the resting metabolism and so forth, The resting metabolic rate is measured as amount of oxygen consumed in a minute per kilogram of body mass, a measurement of energy used per kg body weight per minute in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity. One MET is the energy expenditure when a person is at rest. This is equivalent to 3.5 kilocalories /kg/hour.

1 MET = resting VO2 (volume of oxygen used) which is approximately 3.5ml (oxygen) per kilogram (body weight) per minute.

Resting VO2 (One MET) = 3.5 ml x kg x minutes.

For the purpose of calculating your energy expenditure during physical activity, the formula is:

Energy Expenditure (cals per minute )

= 0.0175 cals/kg/min. x MET x body weight (kg) = calories per minute = cals/min x 60 = calories expended

Below are examples of energy expenditure for various body weights and activities.

Estimated exercise energy (METs)/calorie (Kilocalorie/hour) expenditure:

METs Activities Weight(Kilograms)
40 50 60 70
1 Sitting on toilet
42
53
63
74
1.5 Bathing-sitting Typing
63
79
95
110
2.0 Standing and getting ready for bed Dressing and undressing Grooming Eating and
84
105
126
147
2.3 Ironing
97
121
145
169
2.5 Serving food, setting table (implied walking or standing)
105
131
158
184
3.0 Walking downstairs Carrying small talking child
126
158
189
220
3.5 Home activities- Vacuum Walking and carrying infant
147
184
220
257
3.8 Scrubbing floor
160
200
239
279
4.0 Care for elder/ Disabled adult
168
210
252
294
4.5 Jogging on a mini tramp Washing and waxing car
189
236
284
330
5.0 Gardening- digging/spading
210
825
990
1155
6.0 Cycling(leisure/slow/light) Moving furniture
252
263
315
368
7.0 Jogging Swimming-back stroke
294
315
378
441
7.5 Carrying groceries upstairs
315
368
441
5157
8.0 Cycling(moderate effort)
336
420
504
580
11.0 Swimming-breast stroke/butterfly stroke
462
578
693
809

Caloric Expenditure for General Fitness

Caloric expenditure (Based on the number of calories used during physical activity)

Cumulative time spent on moderate intensity physical activities should at 30 minutes per day

  • 150 kcal per day in physical activity – minimum level to maintain a degree of health
  • 150-300 kcal. per day- for health improvement
  • 300-500 kcal. per day- increases longevity, reduces premature death from cardiovascular disease
  • > 300 kcal. per day – to lose weight (for significant weight loss or maintenance weight loss calorie expenditure should be 1500 to 2500 kcal per week) see table
  • > 500 kcal. per day – for sports training
Last Review : 26 April 2012
Writer : Sarkuna Devi
: Normah bt. Nordin
: Thillainathan a/l Krishnan
Reviewed : Dr. Muhammad Azlan bin Abd. Rahman

 

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