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Meningoencephalitis

Encephalitis is defined by the presence of an inflammatory process of the brain tissue in association with clinical evidence of neurologic dysfunction.1 Meningoencephalitis is an inflammatory process involving both the brain tissue and meninges2 (Figure 1) Figure 1 The estimated annual incidence of encephalitis in the UK is 4/100,000. Infection …

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Functional Appliances

Introduction and Defination Functional appliances are orthodontic appliances that utilize the forces of orofacial musculature and the modification of growth to correct malocclusion via varying amounts of dental and skeletal effects. They are mostly used to correct Class II malocclusions and only some mild cases of Class III malocclusions. They …

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Causes Of Infertility In Women

Introduction For pregnancy to occur there must be a fertile sperm and an egg, a mean of bringing them together and a receptive endometrium to allow the resulting embryo to implant. A defect at any of these stages can lead to subfertility. It has been estimated that in 35 per …

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Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)

Introduction Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), usually occurs as a result of taking hormonal medications that stimulate the development of eggs in a women ovaries (ovulation induction), which may cause serious impact on the patient’s health. Around 0.1 % – 2% of the patients develop severe forms of the syndrome. This …

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Menstrual Cycle Physiology

Introduction The reproductive system of the female, unlike that of the male, shows regular cyclic changes that may be regarded as periodic preparations for fertilization and pregnancy. Menstrual cycle is the cycle of changes that occurs in the uterus and ovary for the purpose of sexual reproduction. When menstruation (periods) …

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Insomnia

Epidemiology Insomnia is common in the elderly. The prevalence of insomnia is 40-50% of people above the age of 60 and more common among women. Definition of insomnia Insomnia is a subjective report of insufficient or non-restorative sleep despite adequate opportunity to sleep. Sleep problems among elderly may be due …

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Urinary Retention

Introduction In general, urinary retention means a complete inability to urinate. In medical terms, it refers to a broader scope which includes: Complete inability to urinate (acute urinary retention) Inability to completely empty the bladder despite preserve ability to urinate (chronic urinary retention) Causes of urinary retention Urinary retention happens …

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Enzyme As Indicators Of Disease

Every living things, either plant, animal or human, all have the enzymes in their mass. In the human body, enzymes are very important in keeping the body to function normally. Enzymes are found in the mouth (saliva), intestine (gastric juices, juice and intestinal mucosa), blood, all organs and cells in …

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Removable Appliance

Removable appliance is one of several types of devices used in orthodontic treatment; the others are fixed appliance, functional appliance and extra-oral device. Nowadays, the use of removable appliance is limited due to its unreliability in achieving satisfactory treatment outcome. Removable appliance can be of benefit in some cases, especially …

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