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Constipation

Introduction Constipation is defined as decrease in stool frequency, hard stool, difficulty in passing out feces and feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation. The overall prevalence of self reported constipation in the elderly is 24-37% and use of laxatives in them is 60%. Causes Age related changes Immobility such as bed …

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Cause

Introduction The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defined pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Chronic pain has several different meanings in medicine. Distinction between acute and chronic pain has relied upon …

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Hernia

Introduction A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or the lining of an organ through the wall of the cavity (commonly abdomen) that normally contains it. The common contents are part of intestine or abdominal fat tissue, lined by a thin membrane which will form hernial sac. It will …

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Introduction It is a condition characterized by obstruction of the airways (the tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs) which is not fully reversible. It includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. There is underlying inflammation of the airways, most commonly due to tobacco smoking leading to damage to …

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Heart Failure

Introduction Heart failure is a complex condition that can result from any disorder that affects the ability of the heart to pump blood adequately to meet the demands of the body.Prevalence increases with advancing age. Causes of heart failure: Coronary heart disease High blood pressure Heart valve problems Abnormalities of …

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Arthritis

Introduction: Arthritis is the inflammation of a joint which causes pain, swelling and stiffness of the joint. The causes may be due to autoimmune mechanism, infection, degenerative changes, or genetic defect The common types of arthritis are: Osteoarthritis (OA) Rheumatoid Arthritis Infectious arthritis Polymyalgia rheumatica Signs and Symptoms Joint pain …

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Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction: The pancreas, an organ in our body produces a chemical substance, a hormone known as insulin. Insulin enables tissues in our body to use glucose and this help maintains a normal glucose level. If insulin is insufficient or ineffective the blood glucose will rise. This condition is called Diabetes …

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Mental Illness Treatment

Introduction Mental illness is a medical condition that interferes with thought, emotion and behavior. It disrupts the ability to relate to the surrounding and with other people. It causes deterioration in daily functioning. Great advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness. Many mental disorders can now be …

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Spiritual Intelligence & Spiritual Health

Introduction Multiple Intelligence Logic or rational abilities don’t make up our total intelligence. Howard Gardner introduced the concept of multiple intelligence such as the linguistic (eg poets), logical and mathematical (eg scientists), musical (eg composers), the spatial ( eg sculptors, pilots), kinesthetics (eg dancers, athletes), the interpersonal (eg teachers, salesmen), …

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Eating Disorder

Introduction Eating disorders are characterized by self critical thoughts about weight and eating. It affects one’s behaviour in terms of eating habits and daily activities. 90% of people with eating disorders are females. The most common type of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Eating disorders frequently develop …

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