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Reproductive Health

Screening for Chromosomal Anomalies

Why is screening for chromosomal anomalies needed? The vast majority of pregnancies result in the delivery of a healthy baby, however a small percentage may have problems affecting the baby’s development. One of the causes for these problems included chromosomal anomalies. Chromosomal anomalies are diseases or syndromes that develop as …

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Thalassemia in Pregnancy

Screening for Thalassemia Thalassaemia is the most common genetic disorder in the world, with around 250 million people, 4.5 percent of the world population, affected by the fatal disease. As 2010, Malaysia registered 4,768 people as Thalassaemic which required regular blood transfusion. And 5% of its population are carrier. Thalassemia …

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Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects

Rationale Neural tube defects (NTDs) are major birth defect due to improper closure of embryonic neural tube that leads to major defect in brain and spine. The commonest neural tube defect is anencephaly (underdeveloped brain and incomplete skull) and spina bifida (incomplete closure of spinal cord). It is estimated that …

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Oocyte Identification (OI)

Introduction Oocyte identification is the process of identification oocyte during oocyte retrieval from the ovarian follicles. Oocyte retrieval is a technique used in in vitro fertilization in order to look for, and pick up oocyte-cumulus complexes (COC) from the follicles of the ovaries, enabling fertilization outside the oocyte retrieval based …

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Risks of Multiple Pregnancies

The infertility treatment’s primary goal has always been for each couple to have one healthy child at a time. However, there are many challenges to this and undoubtedly the most important issue has been multiple pregnancies either twins or more (i.e.: high-order multiple). In many occasions, fertility drugs for ovarian …

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Endocrine – Related Fertility Issues

Introduction All endocrine problems can affect the couple’s gonadal function either directly or indirectly by having an effect on the hypothalamus – pituitary axis. Among the endocrine problems that are directly related to fertility are high prolactin levels, abnormal thyroid function (either high or low), polycystic ovarian syndrome (mentioned on …

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