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PRIME YEARS

Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects

Rationale Neural tube defects (NTDs) are major birth defect due to improper closure of embryonic neural tube that leads to major defect in brain and spine. The commonest neural tube defect is anencephaly (underdeveloped brain and incomplete skull) and spina bifida (incomplete closure of spinal cord). It is estimated that …

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Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer occurs in the colon or rectum. Colon is the large bowel while rectum is the passageway between the colon and the anus. Colorectal cancer occurs commonly worldwide. The risk of getting colorectal cancer increase with age. It is commonly found in people age 50 or older. There may …

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Itchy Eyes

Itchy eyes are a common ocular symptom. This symptom can be associated with eye redness, frequent eye rubbing, lid swelling, photophobia and blurred vision. The commonest causes of eye itchiness are allergic conjunctivitis, blepharitis and dry eye. Allergic conjunctivitis is an ocular surface allergic reaction towards an irritant substance called …

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High Myopia

Myopia is an eye condition where image can be seen clearly at near but blur at distance or in other words, people with myopia or nearsightedness have difficulty seeing distant objects but can clearly see objects that are near. Myopia or nearsightedness affects a significant number of people. But this …

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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a cancer that stars in cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system. Like any other types of cancer, lymphoma are divided to certain subtypes, almost 35 of them had been identified, depending on types of the involved cells. The lymph system (also known as …

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Oocyte Identification (OI)

Introduction Oocyte identification is the process of identification oocyte during oocyte retrieval from the ovarian follicles. Oocyte retrieval is a technique used in in vitro fertilization in order to look for, and pick up oocyte-cumulus complexes (COC) from the follicles of the ovaries, enabling fertilization outside the oocyte retrieval based …

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Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

Introduction JE occurs in a number of countries in Asia and occasionally in Northern Queensland Australia, and East Rusia. The overall incidence of JE reported among people from nonendemic countries traveling to Asia is 1 case per 1 million travelers. However, expatriates and travelers staying for prolonged periods in rural …

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