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Kids

Constipation

What is constipation? Constipation is when bowel movements become less frequent and difficult to pass. How common is this in children and what contributes to it? It is a common problem in children but is usually temporary. Factors promoting constipation are: Inadequate fluid intake. Inadequate fiber in diet. Lack of …

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Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is a common childhood condition which is usually mild and brief. It usually resolves on its own without causing complications. What is diarrhoea? Diarrhoea is the passage of loose, watery stools. The stools are passed more frequently than normal. Acute diarrhoea – sudden onset of diarrhoea that lasts less …

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Heart Defects

Congenital heart defect affects about eight per 1000 babies. The child can present in many ways depending on the type and severity of the heart defect. The heart has four chambers, the upper atria and the lower ventricles and functions as right side and left side of the heart. The …

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Heart Murmurs

Why does a heart murmur occur? A heart murmur is a noise made by turbulent blood flowing through your heart. Most murmurs are ‘innocent’ or ‘functional’, meaning there is nothing wrong with your child’s heart. They may disappear and reappear throughout childhood, may get louder or softer depending on your …

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Stridor in Children

Stridor is a prominent continuous monophonic sound produced especially during inspiration breathing. It indicates upper airway narrowing which can be due to many causes. (Figure 1) Figure 1: Illustration of children’s airway Airway narrowing in children causes significant problem because their airway is generally smaller than adult. Any further narrowing …

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Croup in Children

Respiratory tract infection is the commonest infection in children. About 15% of respiratory tract infections in children are due to CROUP. CROUP is also known as acute laryngotracheobronchitis. As the name suggests, it’s an infection that affects the upper airway specifically larynx, trachea and bronchus in children. (Figure 1, 2). …

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Chest Infections

Introduction The human respiratory tract can be divided into the upper and the lower tract. The lower respiratory tract is situated inside the chest and consists of the airways and the air sacs. The term ‘chest infection’ includes infections of the airways (bronchitis) to the air sacs (pneumonia). Generally, chest …

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Asthma Action Plan

What is an asthma action plan? An asthma action plan is a written plan, customised for every asthmatic patient. The action plan is developed and designed by the doctor to help asthmatic patients to control their asthma. Action plans may differ from patient to patient depending on severity. The asthma …

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