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Nervous System

Wilms Tumour/Nephroblastoma

Introduction Wilms’ tumour   is a solid tumour of the kidney that arises from immature kidney cells. It is  the most common primary malignant renal tumor in children and the fourth most common type of cancer in children .It was  named after Dr Max Wilms, who first described it in 1899.Wilms’ …

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Encephalitis

What Is Encephalitis? Encephalitis is a rare but serious condition that causes inflammation (swelling) of the brain. It is usually caused by a viral infection. Encephalitis affects approximately five to eight people per 100,000 annually. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common viral encephalitis. What Is The Difference …

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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is the abnormal and excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles. Ventricles are the spaces in the brain, filled with CSF. (Figure 1) CSF is the clear and colourless fluid, containing sugar, salt and cells. The important functions of CSF are: protecting the brain and spinal cord …

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Viral Encephalitis in Children

Encephalitis (“Encepha” and “litis”) literally means inflammation of the brain. (Figure 1) It is generally uncommon, affecting about 3.5-7 per 100,000 individuals per year, more commonly in children, elderly and people with weakened immune system. Majority of the encephalitis is caused by virus. Other causes include bacterial infection (such as …

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Viral Encephalitis in Children

Encephalitis (“Encepha” and “litis”) literally means inflammation of the brain. (Figure 1) It is generally uncommon, affecting about 3.5-7 per 100,000 individuals per year, more commonly in children, elderly and people with weakened immune system. Majority of the encephalitis is caused by virus. Other causes include bacterial infection (such as …

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Childhood Migraine

Introduction Migraine headaches are common in children. It is the most common cause of acute and recurrent headache pattern experienced by children. Migraine itself is not dangerous, but can be serious enough to disrupt a child’s activity and schooling. Many children with migraine outgrow their problem, but some will continue …

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Headache in Children

Introduction Headaches are common with 30% – 50% of children in middle childhood and 50 – 60% of adolescents under 15 years of age experiencing headaches. 10% of them experience headaches that are severe enough to interfere with daily activity. Headaches can be single or recurrent in nature, and localized …

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Learning Disabilities

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Introduction Learning disability is a common problem encountered by about 5-10% of school children. It could be divided into general or specific learning disabilities. Other terms used for learning disabilities include intellectual disabilities, mental retardation (in USA) and learning difficulties (in UK). It is twice more common in boys than …

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Meningitis

What is meningitis? Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the lining of the brain. It is almost always caused by germs (bacteria, viruses, tuberculous and others). The bacteria that most often cause meningitis in children are of the species Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitides. More than 90% …

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