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Kidneys

Hydronephrosis & Antenatal Hydronephrosis

Get to know your child’s Urinary System The urinary system has four parts: two kidneys, two urinary tracts, one bladder and one urethra which is the final passage before the urine is excreted from the body. Urine is produced in the kidneys and they are collected in an area called …

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Purpura Henoch-Schonlein (HSP)

Henoch Schonlein Purpura (HSP) is a condition which causes inflammation of the small blood vessels in the body. The swollen and irritated condition of these blood vessels is also known as vasculitis. HSP predominantly affects the blood vessels of the skin, gut/intestines and the kidneys. When the blood vessels are …

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Childhood Hypertension

Can children have high blood pressure (hypertension)? Yes. Hypertension is becoming increasingly common in children and adolescents. An estimated 3-5% of kids have high blood pressure. Children who have high blood pressure tend to be hypertensive as adults. What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure the blood exerts …

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Nephrotic Syndrome in Childhood

What is Nephrotic Syndrome? A kidney condition with excessive loss of protein in the urine leading to low protein levels in the blood. Low protein levels in the blood will lead to swelling (oedema) around the eyes, abdomen and lower legs. It is not very common – it occurs in …

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Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN)

Acute glomerulonephritis is a kidney disease of sudden onset characterized by inflammation of the small filtering units in the kidneys known as glomeruli. The child with acute glomerulonephrits can present with: Swelling around the eyes Discoloured urine – red, tea or coffee coloured urine Reduced urine volume Symptoms of High …

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Dialysis

What is dialysis? Dialysis is a treatment that takes over some of the work done by healthy kidneys. Your child needs dialysis when he develops end stage kidney failure. This is probably for life unless your child has a kidney transplant.   A young boy on haemodialysis machine.   What …

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Bedwetting

What is enuresis? Enuresis is the medical term for bedwetting. It is a condition where a child involuntarily passes urine during sleep. Most children stop bedwetting after the age of 5 or 6 years but studies have also shown that between 10 and 15% of all children in the ages …

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Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease happens when your kidneys and urinary tracts are not working normally. The functions of healthy kidneys are: Filtering blood to produce urine which eliminate waste substances from our blood. Regulate blood pressure. Regulate production of red cells. Regulate acid base balance of the blood. Some of the …

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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder or kidneys usually caused by bacteria. About 3% of girls and 1% of boys have had a UTI by the time they are 11 years old. Some children may have an abnormality of the kidneys or bladder which caused them …

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