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GOLDEN YEARS

Pain in Elderly

Introduction Pain is a common complaint of the elderly. As a person aged, the incidence and prevalence of pain increase. Pain problems can be found in about 25% to 50% of community-dwelling elderly and 45% to 80% of nursing home-dwelling elderly. The problem of pain is often not reported as …

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Acute Pain

Introduction The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defined pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Acute Pain (The following are features of acute pain) Pain that last less than 30 days. Begins …

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Confusion

Introduction Confusion is a common problem happened in persons over 65 years of age. It is characterized by clouding of consciousness with an impaired capacity to think, understand and responding to and remembering stimuli. Patients are disoriented and exhibit reduced attention, inability to express thoughts, drowsiness and defects in memory. …

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Giddiness / Dizziness

Introduction Giddiness / dizziness are similar in meaning about symptom and signs. In this article, I would like to use the word dizziness. Dizziness is a common presentation in primary care, especially among patients older than 75 years. It causes great psychological distress and greater perceived disability in the elderly. …

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Management of Pain

Introduction The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defined pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Acute Pain are pain that last less than 30 days. Complication Delay of appropriate treatment in acute …

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Drug-Related Problems in the Elderly

Introduction Elderly people are unique. They are in a time of losses and poor reserve with atypical presentation; more degenerative disorders; multiple co-morbidity; unreported illnesses e.g. depression, urinary incontinence or dementia. It is very important to differentiate the aged-related changes from true disease process so as to prevent iatrogenic problem. …

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How to Choose A Nursing Home

Introduction Most care givers do not want to leave their loved ones in a nursing home. However, situations may arise that make placing the patient in an institution a necessity and no longer a choice. These include: the inability to care for the patient adequately (unable to devote the time …

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Tremors in an Elderly Patient

Definition Tremors (or ‘the shakes’) are a common condition in the elderly patient. Tremors can be defined as “a rhythmic, involuntary, oscillatory movement of the body parts. It can often be distressing for the patient and relatives and can sometimes be dangerous as well. It is the commonest movement disorder …

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Where Can I Get Help?

The Ministry of Health Malaysia has initiated a special program for the older persons since 1996.  The goal of the program is to achieve optimal health for the older persons through integrated and comprehensive health and health related services in-line with the National Health Policy for the Older Persons (http://fh.moh.gov.my/v3/index.php/kesihatan-keluarga/finish/10-unit-kesihatan-warga-emas/30-dasar-kesihatan-warga-emas-negara)which …

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Immune System

Introduction The components of natural immunity are dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer- cell and the complement system. Dendritic cells – antigen-presenting cells for CD4 +T-helper lymphocyte crucial step in initiation of the immune response. In the elderly, dendritic cells become less. Macrophages – specialize in phagocytosis and intra-cellular killing of …

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