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GOLDEN YEARS

Hernia

Introduction A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or the lining of an organ through the wall of the cavity (commonly abdomen) that normally contains it. The common contents are part of intestine or abdominal fat tissue, lined by a thin membrane which will form hernial sac. It will …

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Hernia (Angin Pasang)

Pengenalan Hernia berlaku apabila kandungan dalam satu-satu ruang badan (biasanya abdomen) membonjol keluar daripada kawasan yang biasa mereka berada. Kandungan ini biasanya adalah sebahagian usus atau tisu lemak abdomen yang dilapisi oleh lapisan nipis (membran) yang juga akan membentuk kantung hernia/hernia sac. Ia dikenali dengan angin pasang surut kerana sifat …

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Pengenalan Satu keadaan di mana saluran pernafasan menjadi sempit dan ini adalah sejenis penyakit yang berkekalan. Ia terdiri daripada bronkitis kronik dan emphysema. Ia berpunca daripada radang saluran pernafasan dan kerosakan tisu paru-paru. Ia biasanya disebabkan oleh tabiat merokok. Kadar kejadian penyakit ini di kalangan lelaki di Malaysia adalah sebanyak …

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Coronary Artery Disease

Introduction Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs whenthe blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. The narrowing and hardening occur as a result of cholesterol and other materials building up in the inner wall of the vessels (plaque formation). As this progresses the blood supply …

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Pressure Sores

Introduction Pressure sores are areas of injured skin and /or underlying tissue. They are usually caused by sitting or lying in one position for too long. This prolonged immobility and pressure can reduce the blood supply to the skin and tissue resulting in damage and sore . Risk factors: Reduced …

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Urinary Incontinence

Introduction Urinary incontinence is defined as involuntary loss of control of urine. It is more common in women. Up to 30% of Malaysian women had urinary incontinence. Types and causes of incontinence : Urge incontinence – most commonly due to bladder muscle ( Detrusor) instability . There is involuntary and …

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Visual Impairment

Introduction About 42% of elderly over age of 60 years in Malaysia are estimated to be visually impaired or having low vision of both eyes, 70% of such cases are potentially remediable. Symptoms Common causes of visual impairment: Refractive errors (longsighted), cataract, glaucoma, age related macular degeneration, diabetic retinal disease …

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Falls

Introduction Fall is a major cause of disability and death in the elderly. More than a third of elderly people living in the community fall annually. Risk factors : Environmental– loose carpets and rugs, bad/slippery flooring, steep stairs, poor lighting, poor fitting foot wears and clothes, lack of safety equipments …

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Parkinson’s Disease

Introduction Parkinson’s Disease is one of the commonest neurological diseases affecting the elderly. Definition: It is due to damage to the brain cells resulting in the reduction of specific brain chemical (dopamine). Epidemiology: The prevalence of the disease increases with age. Symptoms 4 key signs and symptoms: Tremor (trembling of …

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Erectile Dysfunction

Introduction Definition: Inability to attain and maintain an erection long enough to achieve a satisfactory sexual intercourse. A cross national epidemiological study in Malaysia (1997/98) showed that 1.7 million men above 40 has some degree of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) Causes of ED: Common medical diseases like diabetes and hypertension which …

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