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Symptom Approach

Memory Problem

Introduction Memory loss can be a normal part of aging process. As people get older, degenerative changes occur in all parts of the body, including the brain. As a result, it may take longer time to acquire and remember new information for some elderly. A number of conditions can cause …

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Leg Swelling or Oedema in Elderly

Introduction Leg swelling can occur to any parts of the legs, including the feet, ankles, calves or thighs The aetiology of chronic leg swelling may be complex and a number of different factors may predispose an individual to develop swelling Patients with chronic leg oedema may experience increased psychological distress …

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Dyspnoea / Shortness of Breath in Elderly

Introduction Dyspnoea is a sensation of difficulty or uncomfortable breathing. It is the same with breathlessness or shortness of breath Dyspnoea is a common symptom but can be both distressing and frightening for patients and carers Dyspnoea is a result from complex interactions between neurologic stimulation, the mechanics of breathing …

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Pain in Elderly

Introduction Pain is a common complaint of the elderly. As a person aged, the incidence and prevalence of pain increase. Pain problems can be found in about 25% to 50% of community-dwelling elderly and 45% to 80% of nursing home-dwelling elderly. The problem of pain is often not reported as …

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Confusion

Introduction Confusion is a common problem happened in persons over 65 years of age. It is characterized by clouding of consciousness with an impaired capacity to think, understand and responding to and remembering stimuli. Patients are disoriented and exhibit reduced attention, inability to express thoughts, drowsiness and defects in memory. …

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Giddiness / Dizziness

Introduction Giddiness / dizziness are similar in meaning about symptom and signs. In this article, I would like to use the word dizziness. Dizziness is a common presentation in primary care, especially among patients older than 75 years. It causes great psychological distress and greater perceived disability in the elderly. …

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Tremors in an Elderly Patient

Definition Tremors (or ‘the shakes’) are a common condition in the elderly patient. Tremors can be defined as “a rhythmic, involuntary, oscillatory movement of the body parts. It can often be distressing for the patient and relatives and can sometimes be dangerous as well. It is the commonest movement disorder …

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Loss of Weight

Introduction Body weight is determined by the interplay of calorie intake, activity level, and the metabolic rate. Significant alterations involving any of these factors may result in weight loss. Unintentional weight loss, defined as the loss of 10 lb (4.5kg) or a decrease of more than 5% of usual body …

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Loss of Appetite

Introduction Loss of appetite (LOA) or Anorexia is defined as loss of the desire to eat and is associated with a reduced food intake. LOA can be due to a wide range of disease processes. However, many clinicians do not assess the nutritional status of the elderly routinely or treat …

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