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Common Disease

Coronary Artery Disease

Introduction Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs whenthe blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. The narrowing and hardening occur as a result of cholesterol and other materials building up in the inner wall of the vessels (plaque formation). As this progresses the blood supply …

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Pressure Sores

Introduction Pressure sores are areas of injured skin and /or underlying tissue. They are usually caused by sitting or lying in one position for too long. This prolonged immobility and pressure can reduce the blood supply to the skin and tissue resulting in damage and sore . Risk factors: Reduced …

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Urinary Incontinence

Introduction Urinary incontinence is defined as involuntary loss of control of urine. It is more common in women. Up to 30% of Malaysian women had urinary incontinence. Types and causes of incontinence : Urge incontinence – most commonly due to bladder muscle ( Detrusor) instability . There is involuntary and …

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Visual Impairment

Introduction About 42% of elderly over age of 60 years in Malaysia are estimated to be visually impaired or having low vision of both eyes, 70% of such cases are potentially remediable. Symptoms Common causes of visual impairment: Refractive errors (longsighted), cataract, glaucoma, age related macular degeneration, diabetic retinal disease …

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Falls

Introduction Fall is a major cause of disability and death in the elderly. More than a third of elderly people living in the community fall annually. Risk factors : Environmental– loose carpets and rugs, bad/slippery flooring, steep stairs, poor lighting, poor fitting foot wears and clothes, lack of safety equipments …

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Parkinson’s Disease

Introduction Parkinson’s Disease is one of the commonest neurological diseases affecting the elderly. Definition: It is due to damage to the brain cells resulting in the reduction of specific brain chemical (dopamine). Epidemiology: The prevalence of the disease increases with age. Symptoms 4 key signs and symptoms: Tremor (trembling of …

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Erectile Dysfunction

Introduction Definition: Inability to attain and maintain an erection long enough to achieve a satisfactory sexual intercourse. A cross national epidemiological study in Malaysia (1997/98) showed that 1.7 million men above 40 has some degree of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) Causes of ED: Common medical diseases like diabetes and hypertension which …

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Lemah Jantung

Pengenalan Lemah jantung adalah satu keadaan yang kompleks. Ia disebabkan oleh penyakit yang mempengaruhi keupayaan jantung untuk mengepam darah yang secukupnya untuk memenuhi keperluan badan. Kadar kejadian meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan umur. Sebab-sebab lemah jantung: Penyakit jantung koronari Tekanan darah tinggi Masalah injap jantung Kadar denyutan jantung yang luar biasa …

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Arthritis

Pengenalan Arthritis adalah radang yang berlaku di sendi-sendi yang menyebabkan sendi sakit, bengkak dan kaku. Ianya boleh di sebabkan oleh mekanisma “autoimmune”, jangkitan, perubahan “degenerative” atau kecacatan pada baka. Jenis-jenis arthritis adalah: Osteoarthritis (OA) Rheumatoid Arthritis Infectious arthritis Polymyalgia rheumatica Tanda-tanda dan gejala Sakit sendi (lengan, pergelangan tangan, jari-jari, pergelangan …

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Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction: The pancreas, an organ in our body produces a chemical substance, a hormone known as insulin. Insulin enables tissues in our body to use glucose and this help maintains a normal glucose level. If insulin is insufficient or ineffective the blood glucose will rise. This condition is called Diabetes …

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