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Common Disease

Dysphagia

Introduction Dysphagia means difficulty in swallowing. It also includes the feeling that the food is stuck in the throat or between the throat and the stomach. Difficulty in swallowing is more common among older people. About 5% to 10% of older people who live independently have difficulty in swallowing. Swallowing …

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Management of Pain

Introduction Pain assessment in elderly people provides very unique challenges. The doctor assessing the pain must rely on his skill and perception as well as verbal and nonverbal expressions of patients and caregivers for a comprehensive assessment. Assessment of pain in the elderly may at times be difficult and frustrating …

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Cause

Introduction The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defined pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Chronic pain has several different meanings in medicine. Distinction between acute and chronic pain has relied upon …

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Anemia in Elderly

Introduction There are three types of cells that circulate throughout the body, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Anemia is a medical condition that occurs when a person does not have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells, which contain haemoglobin, a red iron-rich protein, carry oxygen from …

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Hypothyroidism

Introduction Hypothyroidism is a condition due to underactive thyroid gland. There is a decrease in the production of thyroid hormones which slows down the body functions. More than 15% of older people have some degree of hypothyroidism. Women are affected about twice as often as men. Causes In many people, …

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Hipotiroidisme

Pengenalan Hipotiroidisme adalah keadaan di mana kelenjar tiroid menjadi kurang aktif. Pengeluaran hormon tiroid akan berkurangan mengakibatkan fungsi badan menjadi perlahan. 15% atau lebih daripada warga emas mempunyai penyakit hipotiroidisme. Penyakit ini adalah 2 kali ganda lebih kerap di kalangan kaum wanita berbanding dengan kaum lelaki. Penyebab-penyebab Untuk kebanyakan pesakit, …

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Hernia

Introduction A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or the lining of an organ through the wall of the cavity (commonly abdomen) that normally contains it. The common contents are part of intestine or abdominal fat tissue, lined by a thin membrane which will form hernial sac. It will …

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Hernia (Angin Pasang)

Pengenalan Hernia berlaku apabila kandungan dalam satu-satu ruang badan (biasanya abdomen) membonjol keluar daripada kawasan yang biasa mereka berada. Kandungan ini biasanya adalah sebahagian usus atau tisu lemak abdomen yang dilapisi oleh lapisan nipis (membran) yang juga akan membentuk kantung hernia/hernia sac. Ia dikenali dengan angin pasang surut kerana sifat …

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Pengenalan Satu keadaan di mana saluran pernafasan menjadi sempit dan ini adalah sejenis penyakit yang berkekalan. Ia terdiri daripada bronkitis kronik dan emphysema. Ia berpunca daripada radang saluran pernafasan dan kerosakan tisu paru-paru. Ia biasanya disebabkan oleh tabiat merokok. Kadar kejadian penyakit ini di kalangan lelaki di Malaysia adalah sebanyak …

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