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Norliza

Mitosis

Introduction Every cell in our body goes through a series of events, named cell cycle. This cell cycle leads to its growth, division and duplication in order to produce two daughter cells. In eukaryotic cells (cell with a nucleus), the cell cycle are divided into two main periods: interphase and …

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Meiosis

Meiosis occurs in ovaries and testes, where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information. These cells are our sex cells – sperm in males, eggs in females.

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Klinefelter Syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects males, whom are born with at least one extra X chromosome. Chromosomes, found in all body cells, contain genes. Genes provide specific instructions for body characteristics and functions.

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Karyotype Analysis

Karyology is the study of whole sets chromosome by referring to its standard format known as karyogram or ideogram. Cells collected from individual are induced to divide and the arrested at metaphase stage (a stage in cell division) where the chromosomes are condensed and visible.

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DiGeorge Syndrome

Introduction DiGeorge Syndrome also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a disorder caused by the deletion of a small region of chromosome 22. The deletion occurs at q arm (long arm) on chromosome 22 at location q11.2. Figure 1: Chromosome 22 There are many symptoms that reflect DiGeorge Syndrome. It …

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Cancer & Life

Introduction In the past 45 years I have been working in palm oil plantation as a contractor worker. As a worker in an estate, I apply fertilize to the oil palm trees, spray pesticides and crop the oil palm fruits. I am a 60 years old married man living with …

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Safety and Precautions in Radiotherapy Treatment

Introduction Radiotherapy uses radiation such as x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams or protons to kill or damage cancer cells and stop them from growing and multiplying. It is a localized treatment, which means it generally only affects the part of the body where the radiation is directed. The radiotherapy treatment …

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Communicating Radiation Risk in Paediatric Imaging

Introduction Medical imaging has led to improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of many medical conditions in children and adults. There are many types – or modalities – of medical imaging procedures that are used on children, each of which uses different technologies and techniques. Computed Tomography (CT), fluoroscopy, and …

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MRS Brain Technique For MRI

Introduction Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic test of measuring biochemical changes from the brain, especially the presence of tumors. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identifies the anatomical location of a tumor, MRS compares the chemical composition of normal brain tissue with abnormal tumor tissue. Tissue changes into …

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Comparison between OSL, RPL and TLD

Introduction Personal Dosimeter has been used in various field that deals with ionizing radiation. It is one of requirement for personal that working with ionizing radiation for personal radiation monitoring. Nowadays variety of personal dosimeter that promising high detection sensitivity to get high accuracy of personal dose. Personal dosimeter can …

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