- Antipsychotic is a class of medicine used to treat psychosis.
- They are also known as neuroleptics.
- These medications affect neurotransmitters that allow communication between brain cells.
Types of Antipsychotics
- Typical antipsychotics (also known as first generation antipsychotics):
- Phenothiazines (Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine, Fluphenazine, Perphenazine, Prochlorperazine, Trifluoperazine).
- Butyrophenones (Haloperidol)
- Thioxanthenes (Flupenthixol, Zuclopenthixol)
- Substituted benzamides (Sulpiride)
- Atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics):
Side effects associated with Antipsychotics include:
- Extrapyramidal side effects
- Stiffness and trembling (parkinsonism symptoms) – normally occurs gradually, and in adults or elderly.
- Abnormal face and body movements (dystonia and dyskinesia) – often in children or young adult
- An inner or external feeling of restlessness (akathisia) – which can occur after a large initial dose.
- Rhythmic movements of tongue, face and jaw which is beyond one’s control (tardive dyskinesia) – normally occurs after long therapy or with high dosage
- Other side effects
- Increase in appetite
- Weight gain
- Altered glucose level in the blood leading to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus.
- Loss of white blood cells that fight infection (granulocytosis)
Antipsychotics should be used with caution in conditions such as:
- Liver impairment
- Kidney impairment
- Heart problem
- Parkinson’s disease
- Myasthenia gravis
- Prostatic hypertrophy
- Angle-closure glaucoma
- Do not stop taking this medication without your doctor’s approval
- Before using this drug, tell your doctor your medical history, especially of: liver or kidney disease, drug allergies
- Alcohol or other sedative-type drugs combined together with this medication, can lead to extreme drowsiness.
- Limit alcohol consumption
- Use with caution in elderly persons due to their sensitivity to the side effects of this medication.
- Use with caution in pregnancy.
- Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
- Inform the doctor if you are breastfeeding as dose need to be adjusted.
- Because these drugs are often abused, extra caution should be taken in storing them.
- Do not mix them with other medicines.
- Keep medicines in a cool, dry place and out of a child’s reach.
|Last reviewed||:||20 April 2012|
|Writer||:||Ainul Salhani bt. Abd Rahman|
|Reviewer||:||Rabi’ah bt. Mamat|