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How To Identify Hazards At Your Home

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Introduction
Hazard may be defined as a source or a situation with a potential to harm in terms injuries and deteriorate health to human, property damage, environmental damage or a combination of both. There are many hazards at home to be considered as factor contributes to such an injury or an accident.

Hazard At Home
Hazard is categorized into 5 categories namely physical, biological, chemical, ergonomics and psychosocial.

  1. Physical hazard 

    Example: A sharp knife/scissor which is not placed safely, exposed live electrical wiring, noise from the air condition unit, folded carpet or floor mat on the floor, wet floor, scattered nails, children toys on stairs which are not stored properly.

    pijak mainan
    Picture 1: Children toys which are not properly stored. (Source: http://www.ishn.com)
  2. Biological hazard
    Example : Snake, spider, mosquito, rodent, bug & mite, scorpion, tick, stray dog, centipede.

    ular dalam jamban
    Picture 2: A snake in a toilet bowl (Source: http://www.kulr8.com)
  3. Chemical hazard
    Example: Leaked liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), petrol, kerosene or diesel which is put in uncapped container without a label, pesticides which are not stored safely and properly.

    kanak-kanak main kabinet
    Picture 3: Chemical substances that are not properly kept. (Source: http://pesticidestewardship.org)
  4. Ergonomic hazard
    Example: Mechanical equipment such as unpad screwdriver, non-anthropometrically table, and chair.

    Screwdrivers
    Picture 4: Unpad mechanical equipments (Source: http://www.medievalwarfare.info)
  5. Psychosocial hazard
    Hot tempered or scolding family member, unstable household economy and unfaithful couples.

    kanak-kanak kena marah
    Picture 5: Parents verbally abuse their children

Prevention Of Hazards

Most hazards are preventable. There are many methods to prevent them. The basic step to do is by hazard identification followed by its control.

  • Hazard Identification
    Parents and member of the family may identify the hazards inside the house and its surrounding. This can be done every day and should be written in the home hazard log. Those hazards should be followed up the very next day to make sure there are no exposures to the household. An example of the home hazard log is given below:

    NUMBER DATE & TIME HAZARD IDENTIFIED PLACE CONTROL OF HAZARD

     

  • Hazard Control

Hazard identified by the family members should be controlled by using 6 hierarchy of control namely elimination, substitution, isolation, engineering control, administration and personal protective equipment:

  1. Elimination
    Nails that found scattered in the garage should be collected and an in the municipal communal bin as well as the broken glass utilities.
  2. Substitution
    Toys with sharp edges or protruding screw must be substituted with aerodynamic and non-screw product. Used a screwdriver equipped with safety pad to avoid contact stress.

    playar
    Picture 6: Screwdriver equipped with safety pad (Source: http://www.toolstop.co.uk)
  3. Isolation
    A pet that becomes aggressive should be placed in a secured cage until its character becomes normal.  Medicines should be kept away from children in a locked medication box or cabinet.

    anjing kena kurung
    Picture 7: Aggressive pets should be kept in a cage (Source: http://teakdoor.com)
  4. Engineering control
    • Periodically maintenance on mechanical properties such as car, motorcycle, water heater.
    • Repair any physical house cracks including the environmental damages.
    • Install stair gates.
      tangga berpagar
      Picture 8: Example of stair gates
  5. Administration control
    These methods are to provide safe house environment:
  • Put signage such as “BE CAREFUL, WET FLOOR or AVOID  BROKEN PLATES”.
    signage lantai licin
    Picture 9: Example of a safety signage (Source: http://www.simpsonmillar.co.uk)
  • Explain to the family members especially to children about hazards and its consequences.
  • Train the family members on how to use the new purchased electrical equipment. Manual instruction of attached product should be read prior usage.
  • Adult strict supervision upon children. Children should not be left alone having a shower in the bathroom.
  • Housekeeping should be done every day. Toys and electric cable should be tidied.
  • Close all the gates to avoid falls or playing on the road/roaming near the river.

References

  1. Ablewhite, J., McDaid, L., Hawkins, A., Peel, I., Goodenough T., Deave, T., … & Kendrick, D.  (2015). Approaches used by parents to keep their children safe at home: a qualitative study to explore the perspectives of parents with children aged under five years. BMC Public Health, 1-10. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2252-x
  2. Garispanduan bagi pengenalpastian hazard, penaksiran risiko dan kawalan risiko (HIRARC). (2008). Jabatan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan (Kementerian Sumber Manusia). Putrajaya.
  3. Mack, K. A., Lillier, K.D., Baldwin, G., & Sleet, D. (2015). Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid. Health Educ Behav, 42(10). doi:10.1177/1090198114568306.
Semakan akhir : 25 Mac 2016
Penulis : Padelin Rimpau
Akreditor : Tn. Hj. Rosnani bin Ab. Hamid

 

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